Stomata in hornworts are primarily involved in sporophyte desiccation and spore discharge rather than the regulation of photosynthesis-related gaseous exchange

Hornwort stomata do not respond actively to exogenous and environmental cues

by Pressel S., Renzaglia K. S., Clymo R. S., Duckett, J. G. (2018)

Silvia Pressel,1Karen S Renzaglia,2Richard S (Dicky) Clymo,3 and Jeffrey G Duckett, 1

1Life Sciences Department, Natural History Museum, London, UK

2Plant Biology Department, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, USA

3School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

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In Annals of Botany 122(1): 45–57 – https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcy045

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6025193/

Abstract

Backgrounds and Aims

Because stomata in bryophytes occur on sporangia, they are subject to different developmental and evolutionary constraints from those on leaves of tracheophytes. No conclusive experimental evidence exists on the responses of hornwort stomata to exogenous stimulation.

Methods

Responses of hornwort stomata to abscisic acid (ABA), desiccation, darkness and plasmolysis were compared with those in tracheophyte leaves. Potassium ion concentrations in the guard cells and adjacent cells were analysed by X-ray microanalysis, and the ontogeny of the sporophytic intercellular spaces was compared with those of tracheophytes by cryo-scanning electron microscopy.

Key Results

The apertures in hornwort stomata open early in development and thereafter remain open. In hornworts, the experimental treatments, based on measurements of >9000 stomata, produced only a slight reduction in aperture dimensions after desiccation and plasmolysis, and no changes following ABA treatments and darkness. In tracheophytes, all these treatments resulted in complete stomatal closure. Potassium concentrations are similar in hornwort guard cells and epidermal cells under all treatments at all times. The small changes in hornwort stomatal dimensions in response to desiccation and plasmolysis are probably mechanical and/or stress responses of all the epidermal and spongy chlorophyllose cells, affecting the guard cells. In contrast to their nascent gas-filled counterparts across tracheophytes, sporophytic intercellular spaces in hornworts are initially liquid filled.

Conclusions

Our experiments demonstrate a lack of physiological regulation of opening and closing of stomata in hornworts compared with tracheophytes, and support accumulating developmental and structural evidence that stomata in hornworts are primarily involved in sporophyte desiccation and spore discharge rather than the regulation of photosynthesis-related gaseous exchange. Our results run counter to the notion of the early acquisition of active control of stomatal movements in bryophytes as proposed from previous experiments on mosses.

 

Stomata in early land plants

Vegetative and reproductive innovations of early land plants: implications for a unified phylogeny

by Renzaglia K. S., Duff R. J., Nickrent D. L., Garbary D. J. (2000)

Karen Sue RenzagliaR. Joel DuffDaniel L. Nickrent, David J. Garbary,

In Philosoph. Transactions Roy. Soc. B, Biol. Sci. – https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2000.0615

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2000.0615

Abstract

As the oldest extant lineages of land plants, bryophytes provide a living laboratory in which to evaluate morphological adaptations associated with early land existence. In this paper we examine reproductive and structural innovations in the gametophyte and sporophyte generations of hornworts, liverworts, mosses and basal pteridophytes. Reproductive features relating to spermatogenesis and the architecture of motile male gametes are overviewed and evaluated from an evolutionary perspective. Phylogenetic analyses of a data set derived from spermatogenesis and one derived from comprehensive morphogenetic data are compared with a molecular analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial small subunit rDNA sequences.

Although relatively small because of a reliance on water for sexual reproduction, gametophytes of bryophytes are the most elaborate of those produced by any land plant. Phenotypic variability in gametophytic habit ranges from leafy to thalloid forms with the greatest diversity exhibited by hepatics. Appendages, including leaves, slime papillae and hairs, predominate in liverworts and mosses, while hornwort gametophytes are strictly thalloid with no organized external structures. Internalization of reproductive and vegetative structures within mucilage–filled spaces is an adaptive strategy exhibited by hornworts. The formative stages of gametangial development are similar in the three bryophyte groups, with the exception that in mosses apical growth is intercalated into early organogenesis, a feature echoed in moss sporophyte ontogeny.

A monosporangiate, unbranched sporophyte typifies bryophytes, but developmental and structural innovations suggest the three bryophyte groups diverged prior to elaboration of this generation. Sporophyte morphogenesis in hornworts involves non–synchronized sporogenesis and the continued elongation of the single sporangium, features unique among archegoniates. In hepatics, elongation of the sporophyte seta and archegoniophore is rapid and requires instantaneous wall expandability and hydrostatic support. Unicellular, spiralled elaters and capsule dehiscence through the formation of four regular valves are autapomorphies of liverworts. Sporophytic sophistications in the moss clade include conducting tissue, stomata, an assimilative layer and an elaborate peristome for extended spore dispersal. Characters such as stomata and conducting cells that are shared among sporophytes of mosses, hornworts and pteridophytes are interpreted as parallelisms and not homologies.

Our phylogenetic analysis of three different data sets is the most comprehensive to date and points to a single phylogenetic solution for the evolution of basal embryophytes. Hornworts are supported as the earliest divergent embryophyte clade with a moss/liverwort clade sister to tracheophytes. Among pteridophytes, lycophytes are monophyletic and an assemblage containing ferns, Equisetum and psilophytes is sister to seed plants. Congruence between morphological and molecular hypotheses indicates that these data sets are tracking the same phylogenetic signal and reinforces our phylogenetic conclusions. It appears that total evidence approaches are valuable in resolving ancient radiations such as those characterizing the evolution of early embryophytes. More information on land plant phylogeny can be found at: http://www.science.siu.edu/landplants/index.html.

The evolution of the stomatal apparatus

Figure 3.Cryo-scanning electron micrographs of freeze-fractured hornwort gametophytes (a–c) and sporophytes (d–i): Anthoceros agrestis (a,c,d–f); Folioceros fusiformis (b); Leiosporoceros dussii (g); Megaceros enigmaticus (h); Dendroceros granulatus (i). Sections through thalli showing mucilage-filled cavities (asterisk). (cNostoc colony. (d,g) Intercellular spaces are initially liquid-filled (asterisk) but become gas-filled (e, arrowed) following stomatal opening. (f) Columella with gas-filled (asterisk) intercellular spaces. (h,i) Young (h) and mature (i) sporophytes of astomate taxa, showing complete absence of intercellular spaces in the assimilatory layers which collapse and dry (i). Scale bars: (a,b) 200 µm; (d,e,g) 50 µm; (c,f,h,i) 20 µm.

The evolution of the stomatal apparatus: intercellular spaces and sporophyte water relations in bryophytes—two ignored dimensions

by Duckett J. G., Pressel S. (2017)

Jeffrey G. Duckett, Silvia Pressel,

In Philosoph. Transactions Royal Soc. B Biol. Sci. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2016.0498

https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/full/10.1098/rstb.2016.0498

Figure 4.Cryo-scanning electron micrographs of freeze-fractured moss sporophytes: Physcomitrella patens (a,b); Physcomitrium pyriforme(c,d); Lyellia crispa (e,f). (a,c) Young sporophytes with liquid-filled (asterisk) intercellular spaces. (e) Gas (arrowed) gradually replaces their initially liquid-filled content following stomatal opening, as evidenced by the presence of intercellular spaces only partially filled with liquid (asterisk in f). Liquid is first lost from the substomatal cavities (b; S, stoma) until the entire intercellular space system becomes gas-filled (d). Scale bars: (c,d) 100 µm; (a,e) 50 µm; (b,d) 20 µm.

Abstract

Cryo-scanning electron microscopy shows that nascent intercellular spaces (ICSs) in bryophytes are liquid-filled, whereas these are gas-filled from the outset in tracheophytes except in the gametophytes of Lycopodiales.

ICSs are absent in moss gametophytes and remain liquid-filled in hornwort gametophytes and in both generations in liverworts. Liquid is replaced by gas following stomatal opening in hornworts and is ubiquitous in moss sporophytes even in astomate taxa.

Figure 5.Cryo-scanning electron micrographs of freeze-fractured moss sporophytes: Polytrichum juniperinum (a,b); Mnium hornum (c); Atrichum undulatum (d); Pogonatum aloides (e,f). (a,b) Unopened (a) and open (b) stoma subtended by a gas-filled intercellular space. (c) Sunken stoma subtended by a liquid-filled intercellular space. (d–f) In astomate taxa, intercellular spaces are also initially liquid-filled (asterisk, e) and the same process of liquid replacement by gas occurs in their fully expanded capsules (d,f). Scale bars: (f) 200 µm; (a–e) 20 µm.

New data on moss water relations and sporophyte weights indicate that the latter are homiohydric while X-ray microanalysis reveals an absence of potassium pumps in the stomatal apparatus.

The distribution of ICSs in bryophytes is strongly indicative of very ancient multiple origins. Inherent in this scenario is either the dual or triple evolution of stomata. The absence, in mosses, of any relationship between increases in sporophyte biomass and stomata numbers and absences, suggests that CO2 entry through the stomata, possible only after fluid replacement by gas in the ICSs, makes but a minor contribution to sporophyte nutrition. Save for a single claim of active regulation of aperture dimensions in mosses, all other functional and structural data point to the sporophyte desiccation, leading to spore discharge, as the primeval role of the stomatal apparatus.

This article is part of a discussion meeting issue ‘The Rhynie cherts: our earliest terrestrial ecosystem revisited’.

Hornwort stomata walls

Hornwort stomata walls are not built for movement

Assiry A. (2019)

In Botany One March 20, 2019 –

https://www.botany.one/2019/03/hornwort-stomata-walls-are-not-built-for-movement/

Guard cell walls are built to resist bending and deformation to open and close the pore. Pectins provide flexibility and resilience to walls; in particular arabinans and unesterified homo-galacturonans are required for stomata function. 

Merced and Renzaglia use immunolabelling to investigate how wall architecture and pectin composition of Arabidopsis stomata compare to the unresponsive stomata of the hornwort Phaeoceros (Notothyladaceae, Anthocerotophyta).

(Continued)

Variations in guard cell wall composition reflect different physiological activity of stomata in land plants

 

 

Contrasting pectin polymers in guard cell walls of Arabidopsis and the hornwort Phaeoceros reflect physiological differences

by Merced A., Renzaglia K. S. (2018)

Amelia Merced,  Karen S. Renzaglia,

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in Annals of Botany, mcy168 – https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcy168 –

https://academic.oup.com/aob/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/aob/mcy168/5092734?redirectedFrom=fulltext

Abstract

Background and Aims

In seed plants, stomata regulate CO2 acquisition and water relations via transpiration, while minimizing water loss. Walls of guard cells are strong yet flexible because they open and close the pore by changing shape over the substomatal cavity. Pectins are necessary for wall flexibility and proper stomata functioning. This study investigates the differences in pectin composition in guard cells of two taxa that represent key lineages of plants with stomata: Arabidopsis, an angiosperm with diurnal stomatal activity, and Phaeoceros, a bryophyte that lacks active stomatal movement.

Methods

Using immunolocalization techniques in transmission electron microscopy, this study describes and compares the localization of pectin molecule epitopes essential to stomata function in guard cell walls of Arabidopsis and Phaeoceros.

Key Results

In Arabidopsis, unesterified homogalacturonans very strongly localize throughout guard cell walls and are interspersed with arabinan pectins, while methyl-esterified homogalacturonans are restricted to the exterior of the wall, the ledges and the junction with adjacent epidermal cells. In contrast, arabinans are absent in Phaeoceros, and both unesterified and methyl-esterified homogalacturonans localize throughout guard cell walls.

Conclusions

Arabinans and unesterified homogalacturonans are required for wall flexibility, which is consistent with active regulation of pore opening in Arabidopsis stomata. In contrast, the lack of arabinans and high levels of methyl-esterified homogalacturonans in guard cell walls of Phaeoceros are congruent with the inability of hornwort stomata to open and close with environmental change. Comparisons across groups demonstrate that variations in guard cell wall composition reflect different physiological activity of stomata in land plants.

A lack of physiological regulation of stomatal movements in hornworts compared with tracheophytes

hornwortyoung
Introduction to the Anthocerotophyta (UCMP), Berkeley Above, you can see pictures of the hornwort Phaeoceros. On the left is a plant with young sporophytes beginning to elongate from the top of the gametophyte. (http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/plants/anthocerotophyta.html)

 

 

Hornwort stomata do not respond actively to exogenous and environmental cues

by Pressel S., Renzaglia K. S., Clymo R. S., Duckett, J. G. (2018) 

Silvia Pressel, Karen S. Renzaglia, Richard S. (Dicky) Clymo, Jeffrey G. Duckett

 

in Annals of Botany, mcy045 –  https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcy045

https://academic.oup.com/aob/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/aob/mcy045/4979633?redirectedFrom=fulltext

Abstract

Backgrounds and Aims

Because stomata in bryophytes occur on sporangia, they are subject to different developmental and evolutionary constraints from those on leaves of tracheophytes. No conclusive experimental evidence exists on the responses of hornwort stomata to exogenous stimulation.

 

Methods

Responses of hornwort stomata to abscisic acid (ABA), desiccation, darkness and plasmolysis were compared with those in tracheophyte leaves. Potassium ion concentrations in the guard cells and adjacent cells were analysed by X-ray microanalysis, and the ontogeny of the sporophytic intercellular spaces was compared with those of tracheophytes by cryo-scanning electron microscopy.

 

Key Results

The apertures in hornwort stomata open early in development and thereafter remain open. In hornworts, the experimental treatments, based on measurements of >9000 stomata, produced only a slight reduction in aperture dimensions after desiccation and plasmolysis, and no changes following ABA treatments and darkness. In tracheophytes, all these treatments resulted in complete stomatal closure. Potassium concentrations are similar in hornwort guard cells and epidermal cells under all treatments at all times. The small changes in hornwort stomatal dimensions in response to desiccation and plasmolysis are probably mechanical and/or stress responses of all the epidermal and spongy chlorophyllose cells, affecting the guard cells. In contrast to their nascent gas-filled counterparts across tracheophytes, sporophytic intercellular spaces in hornworts are initially liquid filled.

 

Conclusions

Our experiments demonstrate a lack of physiological regulation of opening and closing of stomata in hornworts compared with tracheophytes, and support accumulating developmental and structural evidence that stomata in hornworts are primarily involved in sporophyte desiccation and spore discharge rather than the regulation of photosynthesis-related gaseous exchange. Our results run counter to the notion of the early acquisition of active control of stomatal movements in bryophytes as proposed from previous experiments on mosses.

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https://www.botany.one/2018/07/hornwort-stomata-are-not-actively-regulated/

Hornwort stomata are not actively regulated

Stomata, pores in the plant epidermis that regulate gas exchange, are a key innovation that enabled freshwater algae to colonize Earth’s landmasses some 500 Mya. Because stomata in bryophytes occur on sporangia, they are subject to different developmental and evolutionary constraints from those on leaves of tracheophytes. No conclusive experimental evidence exists on the responses of hornwort stomata to exogenous stimulation.

Hornwort stomata

Pressel and colleagues investigate stomatal behaviour in hornworts. They investigated responses of hornwort stomata to abscisic acid (ABA), desiccation, darkness and plasmolysis and compared these with those in tracheophyte leaves. Potassium ion concentrations in the guard cells and adjacent cells were analysed by X-ray microanalysis, and the ontogeny of the sporophytic intercellular spaces was compared with those of tracheophytes by cryo-scanning electron microscopy.

They show that there are no potassium fluxes associated with hornwort stomata, and that these do not respond to external factors (abscisic acid, desiccation, darkness and plasmolysis), which cause stomatal closure in other land plants. Their results run counter to the notion that active stomatal control was acquired early in the evolution of land plants, and support the alternative hypothesis of gradual acquisition of active control mechanisms.

Hornwort Stomata (Anthoceros)

Screen Shot 2018-02-07 at 21.21.43

 

Anatomy, Ultrastructure and Physiology of Hornwort Stomata

by Lucas J. R. (2000)

Jessica Regan Lucas,  Southern Illinois University Carbondale

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in  Honors Theses. Paper 136 –

http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1142&context=uhp_theses

Screen Shot 2018-02-07 at 21.24.07

Conclusions;

The development of hornwort stomata is very simple. This is indicated by the single longitudinal division of the guard cell precursor, pectinous ledges, lack of subsidiary cells, and lack of radial micellation. Gas exchange seems to be a likely function of hornwort stomata, but the absence of vascular tissue makes water transport improbable. Histochemical stains for malate and potassium indicate that guard cells localize ions for a short time- after the differentiation of the epidermis and before spore dispersal.

Diurnal guard cell movements do not occur in hornworts. Neither dehydration or ABA treatment effects the guard cells in respect to movement. It is still unclear whether or not hornwort stomata are homologous to stomata of vascular plants. The prominent chloroplast, the localization of ions, and the role of stomata in gas exchange suggest that anthocerote stomata are related to those of other embryophytes.

However, the lack of vascular tissue and stomatal movement counter the homologous theory. Also in opposition to this paradigm is the distinct wall structure of hornwort guard cells. A multilayered wall and ledges of pectin have only been reported for a few other plants. In the future to elucidate the homology of these structures, the effect of ABA should further be studied. Also the guard cells’ ability to transport ions, which is essential for movement, should be determined.