Stomatal apparatus in ferns

Studies in the stomatal apparatus and tracheary elements in ferns

by Soni S. L. (1968)

Sarvjit Lal Soni, sent a submission form

In PhD thesis at Panjab University (India) – http://hdl.handle.net/10603/87763

http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in:8080/jspui/bitstream/10603/87763/1/01_title%20page.pdf

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Stomatal ontogeny in the fern Ophioglossum petiolatum (Filicopsida)

http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora_details.aspx?ID=82

Guard cell ontogeny in leaf stomata of the fern Ophioglossum petiolatum

Peterson R. L., Hambleton S. (1978)

R. L. Peterson, Sarah Hambleton,

in  Canadian Journal of Botany 56: 2836–2852 – https://doi.org/10.1139/b78-340 – 

http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/b78-340?journalCode=cjb1

ABSTRACT

Guard cells in Ophioglossum petiolatum leaves are initiated by a single division of a stomatal initial with no subsidiary cells being formed. The stomatal initials have few vacuoles, plastids with little starch, and a large nucleus with much heterochromatin and prominent nucleoli.

Young guard cells are similar cytologically to stomatal initials; their common cell walls are thin and traversed by plasmodesmata. Plasmodesmata are also present within guard cell and adjacent epidermal cell walls.

With increasing age, guard cells develop a lenticular thickening in the median portion of the common cell walls, larger vacuoles, and plastids with several starch grains. Numerous microtubules are present near the thickening wall which also has an electron-translucent region between the cell wall and the plasmalemma.

Many dictyosomes and mitochondria are present in the cytoplasm. Older guard cells become more vacuolated, with some of the vacuoles containing fibrillar or dense deposits.

Plastids become very large as a result of storing several large starch grains. In the thickened portion of the cell walls, the middle lamella and some of the adjacent cell wall appear to be degraded during stomatal pore formation.

Mature guard cells are highly vacuolated and have very thick electron-dense cell walls without plasmodesmata. Fluorescence microscopy following aniline blue staining shows that aniline blue positive materials are present around and within the thickened portion of the cell walls, at the junction of guard cells with epidermal cells, and as distinct spots in guard cell and epidermal cell walls during the early stages of ontogeny.

Mature guard cells, however, lack the distinct fluorescent spots, which are interpreted as plasmodesmata, in their walls.

Stomata in Dryopteris and Polystichum (Dryopteridaceae)

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Fig. 6. Characteristic of epidermal surface of 6 species of Polystichum under LM (A,B), P. lonchitis (C,D), P. luctosum (E,F), P. nigropaleceum (G,H), P. prescotianum (I,J), P. thomsonii (K,L), P. wilsoni Adaxial epidermis (A,C,E,G,I,K) showing number of lobes of epidermis cell, epidermal cell with irregular shape without stomata. Other remaining figures from abaxial epidermis with irregular epidermal shape and staurocytic stomata.

 

A light and scanning electron microscopic diagnosis of leaf epidermal morphology and its systematic implication in Dryopteridaceae: Investigating 12 Pakistani taxa

by Shah S. N., Ahmad M., Zafar M., Malik K., Rashid N., Ullah F., Zaman W., Ali M. (2018)

Syed_Shah225
Syed Nasar Shah, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Mushtaq_Ahmad27
Mushtaq Ahmad, Athabasca University, Athabasca, Canada

Muhammad_Zafar6
Muhammad Zafar, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Khafsa MalikQuaid-i Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Neelam RashidQuaid-i Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Fazal_Ullah4
Fazal Ullah, Quaid-i Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

Wajid_Zaman5
Wajid Zaman, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

Maroof_Ali3
Maroof Ali, Moradabad Institute of Technology, India

===

in Micron 111(2018)- DOI: 10.1016/j.micron.2018.05.008 –

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/325429746_A_light_and_scanning_electron_microscopic_diagnosis_of_leaf_epidermal_morphology_and_its_systematic_implication_in_Dryopteridaceae_Investigating_12_Pakistani_taxa

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Fig. 7. Stomatal characteristic on epidermis surface of 12 species of Dryopteridaceae under SEM (A) D. blanfordii (B) D. juxtaposita (C) D. nigropaleacea (D) D. ramose (E) D. stewertii, (F) P. lachenense (G) P. lonchitis (H) P. luctosum (I) P. nigropaleceum (J) P. prescotianum (K) P. thomsonii (L) P. wilsoni Abaxial epidermis, showing elliptic and wide elliptic stomata, broad elliptic and narrow elliptic stomatal pore, smooth and striate inner margin of outer stomatal ledge and ornamentation of outer stomatal ledge.

Abstract and figures
Dryopteris and Polystichum are the 2 complex taxonomic genera of Dryopteridaceae. The comparative foliar epidermal anatomy of 12 species of both genera from Pakistan were studied using standard protocols of light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
The objective of which was systematic comparison and investigation to elucidate the taxonomic importance of foliar micromorphology, which may be useful to taxonomists for identifying complex Dryopteridaceae taxa.
Principal component analysis and UPGMA clustering analysis were performed to test the validity of leaf anatomical features as method of separating species and genera. The foliar epidermal anatomy described here is a good source of taxonomic characters in both groups that can help genera and species delimitation.
This is the first report on leaf micromorphology in most of these species. Observation of foliar anatomy showed that stomata are only present on the abaxial surface; i.e., leaves of all species are hypostomatic. The shapes of epidermal cells in all studied species are irregular. The anticlinal walls are strongly lobed, irregular wavy and elongated wavy. However, substantial variation in epidermal cell size and other stomatal features were observed on both upper and lower surfaces in all investigated species.
Two types of stomata were observed in all studied species. The presence of polocytic stomata in Dryopteris and staurocytic stomata in Polystichum are the important characters for the segregation of these genera. Elongate elliptic stomatal shape, narrow kidney shaped guard cells and broad elliptic shaped stomatal pores are diagnostic for all five species of Dryopteris selected.
On the other hand, size and number of epidermal cells, lobes per cell, stomatal size, subsidiary cell size, stomatal pore size and stomatal index are the key features for species differentiation in Polystichum.
An identification key was developed in order to apply the foliar anatomical characters in the discrimination of the species studied.

Stomata in Cyatheaceae (ferns)

 

 

Spore morphology, stomatal properties and phylogeny of Cyatheaceae (Sensu Holttum and Sen)

by Sen U. (1991)

 

in Conference paper –

http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=BD9125052

Abstract
Earlier studies in spore morphology and stomatal properties in some ferns have shown their value in understanding the interrelationships among different species groups.
In the present study the ontogeny and mature structure of spores and stomata of different taxa of Cyatheaceae were traced, and the interrelationship among different genera have been established taking the properties of stomata and spores as parameters of affinities.
The application of palynological and stomatal features has generated a new and better understanding of the interrelationship among the genera concerned, which have followed three distinct lines of diversification from their ancestral condition.

Stomata in Adiantaceae (Filicopsida)

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Epidermal studies of Nepalese Pteridophytes-Family-Adiantaceae

by Tiwari S. (2015)

SHRADDHA TIWARI,

B. S. Mehta Degree College, Bharwari, Kausambi, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

======

in Indian J.Sci.Res. 6(1) : 81-91 –

https://www.ijsr.in/upload/788649472CHAPTER_15.pdf

Screen Shot 2018-03-01 at 10.11.18

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of species belonging to the family Adiantaceae is reported from Pokhara, Nepal. The present paper deals with the anatomical details like structure of pinnae, structure of stomata, guard cells, other epidermal cells etc. although several workers has reported about the pteridophytic plants from Nepal but it is the first time to work about the epidermal details of Nepalese fern.


Stomata are generally present on lower side of the leaf and the leaves are hypostomatic in nature. The stomata are surrounded by 2-5 neighbouring cells. Stomata are more or less parallel to the vein.

Stomatal structure and stomatogenesis in Azolla (Filicopsida)

Photo credit: Google

Azolla pinnata at Belconnen,

 

Stomatal structure and stomatogenesis in Azolla pinnata P. Brown.

by Sen U. (1983)

Dep. of Bot., Kalyani Univ., Kalyani 741 235, West Bengal, India

============

in Ann. Bot. 52: 201-204 – ISSN 0305-7364 –

https://www.cabi.org/isc/abstract/19840754300

Abstract

A stoma in A. pinnata consists of a unicelled binucleate guard cell with a pore, and one or more subsidiary cells towards the proximal side.

Stomatal development is of the polocytic or mesoperigenous anomocytic type except that the guard-cell mother cell fails to form 2 distinct guard cells because of restricted cytokinesis.

Similarities and differences between the stoma of A. pinnata and that of the fossil lycopod Zosterophyllum myretonianum are discussed.

Stomata in Pteridium caudatum (Dennstaedtiaceae) – (ferns)

Photo credit: Google

Lacy bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum var. caudatum)

 

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Scanning electron micrographs of the lower epidermal surface of frond laminae in Pteridium. Fig. 1. LINN 1246.14. Scale bar = 200 µm. Fig. 2. LINN 1246.15. Scale bar = 200 µm. Fig. 3. P. caudatum, Venezuela, NSW 361276. Scale bar = 50 µm. Fig. 4. P. arachnoideum, Venezuela, NSW 361275. Scale bar = 50 µm. Fig. 5. P. arachnoideum, Surinam, NSW 360580. Scale bar = 50 µm. Fig. 6. P. caudatum, Costa Rica, NSW 420297. Scale bar = 25 µm. Fig. 7. LINN 1246.14. Scale bar = 25 µm. Fig. 8. P. arachnoideum, Costa Rica, NSW 420304. Scale bar = 25 µm.

Clarification of the taxonomic status and relationships of Pteridium caudatum (Dennstaedtiaceae) in Central and South America.

by Thomson J., Alonso-Amelot M. E. (2002)

John A. Thomson, National Herbarium of New South Wales, Royal Botanic Gardens, Mrs Macquaries Road, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia

Miguel E. Alonso-Amelot

in Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 140: 237–248 – https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1095-8339.2002.00089.x

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1095-8339.2002.00089.x/abstract

Screen Shot 2017-09-14 at 20.00.31
Light microscopy of false-indusial segment margin (Fig. 9–12) and stomatal guard cells (Figs 13–16) after ruthenium red staining of epidermal peels of species of Pteridium. Scale bar = 25 µm for all micrographs. Fig. 9. LINN 1246.14. Fig. 10. LINN 1246.15. Fig. 11. P. caudatum, Mexico, NSW 360620. Fig. 12. P. arachnoideum, Brazil, NSW 360588. Fig. 13. LINN 1246.14. Fig. 14. LINN 1246.15, photographed through dense covering of long vein hairs. Fig. 15. P. caudatum, Peru, NSW 360578. Fig. 16. P. arachnoideum, Costa Rica, NSW 420304.

Abstract

Contemporary systematic treatments of the Central and South American bracken ferns in the genus Pteridium Gled. ex Scop. recognize morphotype caudatum as either a full species or a variety of P. aquilinum (L.) Kuhn.

Geographically representative sporophytes of morphotype caudatum, including the type in the Linnaean Herbarium, are shown using spore size, guard-cell length and morphology of the cells of the false indusium to be tetraploid (based on 4n = 208).

DNA fingerprinting of field-collected Venezuelan samples supports the generalization that morphotype caudatum is a fertile allotetraploid containing genomic elements otherwise distinctive of the southern hemisphere diploid P. arachnoideum (Kaulf.) Maxon, together with elements characteristic of northern hemisphere diploids including the North American P. aquilinum var. pubescens Underw. and P. aquilinumvar. pseudocaudatum (Clute) A. Heller.

Evidence of genetic isolation from taxa with overlapping distributions, as well as morphological, biochemical and ecological data, validate recognition of P. caudatum (L.) Maxon at species level.

Heterogeneity observed within P. caudatum is consistent with multiple origins through independent hybridization events.

Pteridium caudatum is strikingly analogous to the tropical Asian/Australasian allotetraploid P. semihastatum (N. Wallich ex J. G. Agardh) S. B. Andrews [=P. yarrabense (Domin) N. A. Wakef.].


PLOIDY LEVEL

Knowledge of ploidy level is of considerable potential value in systematic and evolutionary studies, but attains significance only when generalization to an entire taxonomic unit becomes possible. Methods for unequivocal direct assessment of ploidy, including chromosome counts, determination of nuclear DNA content or molecular genome and isozyme analyses, typically require fresh or specially preserved material and are inapplicable to routine dried herbarium specimens. Correlates of ploidy level, especially stomatal guard-cell length and spore size (Barrington, Paris & Ranker, 1986), must therefore be used to generalize results obtained on a few individuals by direct methods to the taxon as a whole. The relationship between guard-cell length and ploidy level has been established for P. arachnoideum and P. caudatum (Thomson, 2000a) by (i) measurement of guard-cell length in specimens of P. arachnoideum and a presumed hybrid from the Galapagos Islands that showed chromosome complements of 2n = 104 and 4n = 208, respectively (Jarrett, Manton & Roy, 1968), and (ii) measurement of nuclear DNA content (Table 1;2c = 16.5 pg for P. arachnoideum and 4c = 30.9 pg for P. caudatumTan & Thomson, 1990). SEMs of the guard cells of P. caudatum (NSW 420297, Costa Rica) are shown in Figure 6 for comparison with those of Linnaeus’ specimen 1246.14 (Fig. 7) and P. arachnoideum (NSW 420304, Fig. 8). Guard cells of the type of P. caudatum (LINN 1246.15) could not be visualized with the SEM using the limited tissue available for examination due to the dense overlying indumentum in this specimen (Fig. 2, cf. Fig. 1). Light micrographs of guard cells in LINN 1246.14 and LINN 1246.15 are shown in Figures 13 and 14, respectively, with P. caudatum (NSW 360578) from Peru (Fig. 15) and P. arachnoideum (NSW420304) from Costa Rica (Fig. 16) for comparison. Consistent with a difference in ploidy level between them, the larger size and less crenulate margins of the epidermal cells in P. caudatum (including the Linnaean specimens) compared with those of P. arachnoideum are evident in both the SEM photographs of Figures 6–8and the light micrographs of Figures 13–16.

Mean guard-cell lengths, based on measurements for 30 stomata for each accession, are shown in Table 1. These data greatly extend the preliminary observations reported by Thomson (2000a,b) and suggest that all specimens assigned to P. arachnoideum on morphological grounds are diploid, and are consistent with the conclusion that all accessions of P. caudatum, including LINN 1246.14 and the type (LINN 1246.15) are tetraploid. Within both P. arachnoideum and P. caudatum there is significant between-accession variation in guard cell length. The ranges of the means for the two groups do not overlap. The smallest difference between mean guard-cell lengths for any pair of P. caudatumand P. arachnoideum specimens represented in Table 1 is significant at P < 0.001. In overview, accessions of P. arachnoideum have a mean guard cell length less than 34 µm; those of P. caudatummore than 38 µm. Guard-cell length in the North American diploid brackens (vars latiusculumpseudocaudatum and pubescens) is significantly greater than in the southern diploid P. arachnoideum(Thomson, 2000a), limiting the value of this character as an independent indicator of ploidy level. Similar differences in the relationship of ploidy to guard-cell length have been reported for other fern taxa (Barrington et al., 1986), and presumably reflect the adaptive significance of stomatal morphology in gas and water economy.