Stylites andicola, which lacks stomata, is unable to exchange gas with the aerial atmosphere, but it derives nearly all of its photosynthetic carbon through its roots

Stylites, a vascular land plant without stomata absorbs CO2 via its roots

Keeley J. E., Osmond C. B., Raven J. A. (1984)

Jon E. KeeleyC. Barry OsmondJohn A. Raven

Nature 310: 694–695 –

https://www.nature.com/articles/310694a0

Abstract

Photosynthetic organs of most higher plants normally have access to atmospheric CO2 through stomatal pores which also serve as variable valves to control the loss of H2O vapour which accompanies CO2 uptake1. The acquisition of stomata is commonly thought to have been a crucial development permitting ‘conquest’ of land and direct access of plants to atmospheric CO2. Only in desert stem succulents during drought do stomata remain so tightly closed in the light that the photosynthetic tissues are dependent on internal CO2 generated through the photosynthetic pathway known as crassulacean acid metabolism2. Functional stomata are absent in submerged aquatic plants and in non-vascular land plants (for example, mosses) which are normally covered by a water film. Although it is now clearly established that some aquatic plants assimilate large amounts of CO2 from the sediment via roots3–5, terrestrial plants are thought to assimilate only insignificant amounts of CO2 via this path6. Here we report on a terrestrial plant, Stylites andicola, which lacks stomata and is unable to exchange gas with the aerial atmosphere. Rather, it derives nearly all of its photosynthetic carbon through its roots. In addition, this species possesses characteristics of crassulacean acid metabolism.

Who is interested in studying stomata in Isoetes ?

Photo credit: Google

Isoetes melanospora colony: Black-spored Quillwort

Lack of data on stomata in the Isoetopsida

Researchers looking for an interesting subject in the framework of studies on stomata may know that there are only a limited number of studies carried out on the Isoetopsida (Quillworts).

isoetes_melanospora
Isoetes melanospora – http://www.goldendelighthoney.com/tes/ISME3/Isoetes_melanospora.jpg

In our bibliographical lists we only mention:

Huisa E. K., Schafran P. (2016) – Analysis of morphological and anatomical characteristics of stomata of Isoetes hyemalis D. F. Brunt – Oral Paper Number: 0007 – Abstract ID:891 – http://www.botanyconference.org/engine/search/index.php?func=detail&aid=891 – (On our blog : https://plantstomata.wordpress.com/2016/11/02/stomata-in-isoetes-hyemalis-isoetopsida/)

Pant D. D., Mehra B. (1963) – Development of stomata in some fern allies –  Vol. 30, B, No. 2 – http://www.dli.gov.in/rawdataupload/upload/insa/INSA_1/20005b76_92.pdf – (On our blog : https://plantstomata.wordpress.com/2016/08/31/development-of-stomata-in-isoetes-lycopodium-selaginella-and-equisetum/)

Rao A. R., Patankar T. B. V. (1980) – Studies on Isoetes sahyadriensis Mahabale. I. Ontogeny of stomata.- Geophytology 10. 1-4. [Bibl. Agric. 46 (1982) No. 049186]. (No abstract found – Who can send us one ?)

images
Isoetes echinospora (spiny-spored quillwort – https://newfs.s3.amazonaws.com/taxon-images-1000s1000/Isoetaceae/isoetes-echinospora-le-blegler.jpg

It would be nice if some colleagues could pick up this subject and enrich our knowledge.

Stomata in Isoetes hyemalis (Isoetopsida)

 

Photo credit: Google

Isoetes (Quillwort)

Analysis of morphological and anatomical characteristics of stomata of Isoetes hyemalis D. F. Brunt

by Huisa E. K., Schafran P. (2016)

Old Dominion University, Department of Biological Sciences, Norfolk, Virginia, USA

Elizabeth Kana Huisa

Peter Schafran

 

Botany Conference: Oral Paper Number: 0007 – Abstract ID:891

http://www.botanyconference.org/engine/search/index.php?func=detail&aid=891

Abstract:

Few studies have focused on comparative morphological variation and almost none involve stomata density.

The goal of this study is to document the variation in characteristics and morphology of stomata of plants grown submerged, and to understand the adaptability of the genus Isoetes in changing environments.

Forty individuals of Isoetes hyemalis were planted in a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and sand after removing all leaves; 20 were planted in terrestrial conditions and 20 in submerged conditions. Plants were divided into ten groups of four. Each individual was planted approximately 3 cm apart from each other in five containers of volume 785 cm3 under terrestrial conditions, and in five containers of volume of 5,280 cm3 under submerged conditions.

If morphological variations of stomata occur due to environmental conditions, these results could suggest that stomata cannot be used for taxonomic purposes.

Stomata of Isoetes hyemalis (Isoetopsida)

 

Analysis of morphological and anatomical characteristics of stomata of Isoetes hyemalis D. F. Brunt

by Huisa E. K., Schafran P., Musselman L. (2016)

Oral Paper Number: 0007 – Abstract ID:891

Abstract:

Few studies have focused on comparative morphological variation and almost none involve stomata density.

The goal of this study is to document the variation in characteristics and morphology of stomata of plants grown submerged, and to understand the adaptability of the genus Isoetes in changing environments.

Forty individuals of Isoetes hyemalis were planted in a 1:1 mixture of peat moss and sand after removing all leaves; 20 were planted in terrestrial conditions and 20 in submerged conditions. Plants were divided into ten groups of four. Each individual was planted approximately 3 cm apart from each other in five containers of volume 785 cm3 under terrestrial conditions, and in five containers of volume of 5,280 cm3 under submerged conditions.

If morphological variations of stomata occur due to environmental conditions, these results could suggest that stomata cannot be used for taxonomic purposes.

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF STOMATA: ISOETOPSIDA

(Checked)

Huisa E. K., Schafran P. (2016) – Analysis of morphological and anatomical characteristics of stomata of Isoetes hyemalis D. F. Brunt – Oral Paper Number: 0007 – Abstract ID:891 – http://www.botanyconference.org/engine/search/index.php?func=detail&aid=891 – (On our blog : https://plantstomata.wordpress.com/2016/11/02/stomata-in-isoetes-hyemalis-isoetopsida/)

Keeley J. E., Osmond C. B., Raven J. A. (1984) – Stylites, a vascular land plant without stomata absorbs CO2 via its roots – Nature 310: 694–695 – https://www.nature.com/articles/310694a0 – (On our blog : https://plantstomata.wordpress.com/2020/10/19/stylites-andicola-which-lacks-stomata-is-unable-to-exchange-gas-with-the-aerial-atmosphere-but-it-derives-nearly-all-of-its-photosynthetic-carbon-through-its-roots/ )

Pant D. D., Mehra B. (1964) – Development of stomata in some fern allies –  Proc. Nat. Inst. Sci. India 30B(2): 92-98 –  http://www.dli.gov.in/rawdataupload/upload/insa/INSA_1/20005b76_92.pdf – (On our blog : https://plantstomata.wordpress.com/2016/08/31/development-of-stomata-in-isoetes-lycopodium-selaginella-and-equisetum/)

Rao A. R., Patankar T. B. V. (1980) – Studies on Isoetes sahyadriensis Mahabale. I. Ontogeny of stomata- Geophytology 10: 1-4 – [Bibl. Agric. 46 (1982) No. 049186] –