Stomata in angiosperm trees and shrubs

Stomata Complex in Some Shrubs and Trees

Obembe O. A. (2015)

Plant Science and Biotechnology Department, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko

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G.J.B.A.H.S. 4(2): 164-172 – ISSN: 2319 – 5584 –

https://www.longdom.org/articles/stomata-complex-in-some-shrubs-and-trees.pdf

https://www.walshmedicalmedia.com/open-access/stomata-complex-in-some-shrubs-and-trees.pdf

ABSTRACT

Twenty taxa comprising of 13 shrubs and 7 trees, distributed in 13 orders and 13 angiospermic families were documented with descriptions for nature of stomata. The epidermal cells are generally arched as found in 17 taxa, with 3 wavy forms.

Anomocytic, anisocytic, paracytic, diacytic, tetracytic and mixed stomata were observed. Stomata size ranging from 18.89 x 13.40µm in Solanum torvum to 34.23 x 24.55µm in Tabernaemontana pachysiphon and stomata index values varying from 4 in Macaranga barteri to 24% in Glyphaea brevis were recorded in this study.

Identifikasi Ciri Arsitektur dan Kerapatan Stomata Duapuluhlima Jenis Pohon Suku Leguminosae untuk Elemen Lansekap Tepi Jalan

Agustini M. (1994)

Maria Agustini,

In Bahasa. Skripsi. Fakultas Pertanian, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor –

https://123dok.com/document/6qmrp27y-identifikasi-arsitektur-kerapatan-stomata-duapuluhlima-leguminosae-elemen-lansekap.html

Stomata in halophytes

Morphology of stomata and leaf hairs of some halophytes from Sundarbans, West Bengal

Das S., Ghose M. (1993)

Phtomorphology, 43(1&2): 59-70 –

http://library.isical.ac.in:8080/jspui/bitstream/10263/5827/1/Morphology%20of%20stomata%20and%20leaf%20hairs%20of%20some….%20P-43-%201%20%26%202-1993-%20p%2059-70.pdf

Stomata in Poaceae, Cistaceae and Boraginaceae

Epidermal anatomic characterization of spontaneous plants belonging to Poaceae, Cistaceae and Boraginaceae families in Algerian Northern Sahara

Slimani N., Mahboub N., Chehma A., Huguenin J., Barir A., Bezza I. F. (2018)

SLIMANI Noureddine1, 2*, MAHBOUB Nasma1, CHEHMA Abdelmadjid 2, HUGUENIN Johann3, BARIR Asma1, BEZZA Imane Fatma1,

1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Life, university of Echahid Hamma Lakhdar El Oued, El Oued 39000, (Algeria).
2 Laboratory of Saharan bioresources preservation and valorization, university of Kasdi Merbah- Ouargla, Algeria
3 CIRAD, UMR SELMET, F-34398 Montpellier, France.
SELMET, Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro, Montpellier, France

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Int. J. Biol. Agric. Res. 1(1): 41-48 –

https://agritrop.cirad.fr/590015/1/Slimani%20%26%20al.%202018%20Epidermal%20anatomic%20characterization%20of%20spontaneous%20plants%20belonging%20to%20Poaceae%20%28IJBAR%29.pdf

Stomata Complex in Angiosperm shrubs and trees

Stomata Complex in Some Shrubs and Trees

Obembe O. A. (2015)

Plant Science and Biotechnology Department, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko

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G.J.B.A.H.S. 4(2): 164-172 – ISSN: 2319 – 5584 –

https://www.longdom.org/articles/stomata-complex-in-some-shrubs-and-trees.pdf

ABSTRACT

Twenty taxa comprising of 13 shrubs and 7 trees, distributed in 13 orders and 13 angiospermic families were documented with descriptions for nature of stomata.

The epidermal cells are generally arched as found in 17 taxa, with 3 wavy forms.

Anomocytic, anisocytic, paracytic, diacytic, tetracytic and mixed stomata were observed. Stomata size ranging from 18.89 x 13.40µm in Solanum torvum to 34.23 x 24.55µm in Tabernaemontana pachysiphon and stomata index values varying from 4 in Macaranga barteri to 24% in Glyphaea brevis were recorded in this study.

The stomatal size and type from the shading and ornamental plants in Pontianak

Description of Stomatal Sizes and Types from Several Shading and Ornamental Plants in Pontianak West Kalimantan

Dhea V. K., Daningsih E. (2021)

Dhea Vivin K., Entin Daningsih,

Universitas Tanjungpura, Pontianak, Indonesia

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Kustiati and W. Candramila (eds.), KOBI-2019 (EPiC Series in Biological Sciences 1: 149–157 –

file:///C:/Users/wille/Downloads/Description_of_Stomatal_Sizes_and_Types_From_Several_Shading_and_Ornamental_Plants_In_Pontianak_West_Kalimantan.pdf

Abstract
Stomatal size is very important related to the transpiration rate. Stomatal types relate to the genetic relationship. This research aimed to describe the stomatal size and type from the shading and ornamental plants in Pontianak. The stomatal sizes and types were measured under 10×10 and 10×40 of magnification subsequently, equipped with a standardized micrometer. Of the 26 plants species, the longest stomata were found in Rhoe discolor (74.44 μm) and the shortest in Mangifera indica L. (15.65 μm) whilst the widest stomata were found in Rhoe discolor (42.08 μm) and the narrowest was found in Morinda citrifolia L., Syzygium malaccense L., and Chlorophytum comosum with the width was only 9.71 μm. There were three stomatal types (paracytic, anomocytic, and anisocytic)
that were found in 20 dicotyledon plants and four stomatal types (type 1, 2, 3, and 4) were found in six monocotyledon plants. The most common type was paracytic found in 11 dicotyledon plants. This stomatal size becomes the foundation to do further research related to the transpiration rate whereas stomatal types can indicate the closeness of the genetic relationship.

Density, size and distribution of stomata in 35 rainforest tree species

Densidade, tamanho e distribuição estomática em 35 espécies de árvores na Amazônia Central

Density, size and distribution of stomata in 35 rainforest tree species in Central Amazonia

Camargo M. A. B., Marenco R. A. (2011)

Miguel Angelo Branco Camargo, Ricardo Antonio Marenco,

Acta Amaz. 41: 205–212 – https://doi.org/10.1590/S0044-59672011000200004  –

https://www.scielo.br/j/aa/a/mk9zrQXFWVxMjGgScdyzBHr/?lang=en

Abstracts

Stomata are turgor-operated valves that control water loss and CO2 uptake during photosynthesis, and thereby water relation and plant biomass accumulation is closely related to stomatal functioning. The aims of this work were to document how stomata are distributed on the leaf surface and to determine if there is any significant variation in stomatal characteristics among Amazonian tree species, and finally to study the relationship between stomatal density (S D) and tree height. Thirty five trees (>17 m tall) of different species were selected. Stomatal type, density (S D), size (S S) and stomatal distribution on the leaf surface were determined using nail polish imprints taken from both leaf surfaces. Irrespective of tree species, stomata were located only on the abaxial surface (hypostomaty), with large variation in both S D and S S among species. S D ranged from 110 mm-2 in Neea altissima to 846 mm-2 in Qualea acuminata. However, in most species S D ranges between 271 and 543 mm-2, with a negative relationship between S D and S S. We also found a positive relationship between S D and tree height (r² = 0.14, p < 0.01), but no correlation was found between S D and leaf thickness. The most common stomatal type was anomocytic (37%), followed by paracytic (26%) and anisocytic (11%). We conclude that in Amazonian tree species, stomatal distribution on the leaf surface is a response most likely dependent on the genetic background of every species, rather than a reaction to environmental changes, and that somehow S D is influenced by environmental factors dependent on tree height.

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Estômatos são válvulas operadas a turgor que controlam a perda de água e a captura de CO2 durante a fotossíntese. Assim, as relações hídricas e o acumulo de biomassa vegetal são fortemente influenciadas pelo funcionamento estomático. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: documentar como os estômatos estão distribuídos na superfície foliar e determinar se existe variação das características estomáticas entre espécies da Amazônia, estudar a relação entre densidade estomática (S D) e altura arbórea. Trinta e cinco árvores (>17 m de altura) de diferentes espécies foram selecionadas. Tipo de complexo estomático, S D, tamanho (S S) e distribuição na superfície foliar foram determinados utilizando impressões de ambas as superfícies foliares com esmalte incolor. Independente da espécie, os estômatos foram encontrados apenas na superfície abaxial (hipoestomatia) com ampla variação na S D e no S S entre espécies. A densidade estomática variou de 110 mm-2 em Neea altissima a 846 mm-2 em Qualea acuminata. Entretanto, a maioria das espécies apresentou S D entre 271 e 543 mm-2, com uma relação negativa entre S D e S S. Observou-se uma relação positiva entre S D e altura arbórea (r² = 0.14, p < 0.01), não havendo relação entre S D e espessura foliar. Os tipos estomáticos mais comuns foram: anomocíticos (37%), seguidos de paracíticos (26%) e anisocíticos (11%). Concluiu-se que em espécies da Amazônia, a distribuição de estômatos na superfície foliar está mais relacionada a fatores genéticos de cada espécie do que a variações ambientais. Entretanto, S D é fortemente influenciada por fatores ambientais concernentes à altura da árvore.

Stomata variation in Angiosperms

Stomata variation of rice and weeds

(수도(水稻) 및 잡초(雜草)의 기공형태(氣孔形態)와 분포(分布))

Kim S. C., Lee S. K., Chung G. S., (1989)

Korean Journal of Weed Science (Korea R.) 9(1): 46-55 – ISSN : 0253-7468 –

https://www.koreascience.or.kr/article/JAKO198934056677176.page

Abstract

Stomatal variation was observed at the Yeongnam Crop Experiment Station in 1988 using 42 rice cultivars and 30 weed species. The shape, density or size of stomata was varied depending on the species. Two general trends, however, were found that more number of stomata was found at lower leaf epidermis than upper leaf epidermis and stomata number was negatively correlated with stomata size. Aneilema japonica and Portulaca oleracea had the least number of stomata having 17-20 stomata per m2m2 for upper leaf epidermis and 17-54 stomata for lower leaf epidermis while Polygonum conspicuum had the greatest number of stomata (449 for upper leaf epidermis and 511 for lower leaf epidermis). Soybean, Aeschynomene indica, Ludwigia prostrata and Lactuca indica had the smallest in stomata size while the biggest stomata was found at P. oleracea and A. Japonica that had the least number of stomata. Cyperus species such as C. difformis, C. iria and C. serotinus had no stomata at upper leaf epidermis. The stomata were distributed only at lower leaf epidermis for these species. Potamogeton distinctus, on the other hand, had stomata almost at upper leaf epidermis and thus, hardly found the stomata at lower leaf epidermis. Among rice cultivars, Tongil-type had the greatest number of stomata followed by Indica-type and Japonica-type, in order. Cultivars released after 1960 had more stomata than cultivars released before 1960 for Japonica-type cultivars while stomata size had reversed trend. Jinheung had the least number of stomata (≒≒ 150 per mm2mm2) while Yushin had the greatest number of stomata (350 for upper and 449 for lower leaf epidermis, respectively) among rice cultivars. Other cultivars having more than 350 stomata per mm2mm2 were Samgangbyeo, Milyang 23, Woonbongbyeo, etc.

수도재배지(水稻栽培地)에 생육(生育)하고 있는 벼와 주변(周邊) 잡초(雜草)들의 기공형태(氣孔形態), 크기 및 밀도(密度)를 조사(調査)하기 위해 1988년(年) 영남작물시험장(嶺南作物試驗場) 수도시험포(水稻試驗圃)에서 수도품종(水稻品種) 42종(種)과 잡초(雜草) 30종(種), 보리, 밀 및 콩 각(各) 1종(種)을 공시(供試)하여 조사(調査)하였던 결과(結果)를 요약(要約)하면 다음과 같다. 1. 기공(氣孔)의 모양은 초종(草種)에 따라 뚜렷한 차이(差異)를 보였는데 구형(球形)에 가까웠던 초종(草種)은 속속이풀, 가래, 소리쟁이, 마디꽃 등(等)이었고, 타원형(楕圓形)에 속(屬)하는 초종(草種)은 민바랭이, 개비름, 자귀풀, 사마귀풀, 벗풀, 물달개비, 여뀌, 여뀌바늘과 피종류(種類)였으며, 장타원형(長楕圓形)에 속(屬)하는 초종(草種)은 보리, 밀, 올챙고랭이, 올방개 및 방동사니류(類)였다. 벼품종(品種)들은 특이(特異)하게 마름모형(形)을 갖고 있었다. 2. 기공(氣孔)의 밀도(密度)와 크기도 토종간(草種間) 차이(差異)가 뚜렷 하였는데 특(特)히 광엽잡초(廣葉雜草)에 속(屬)하는 초종(草種)들에서 더욱 심하였다. 벼품종(品種)들간(間)의 차이(差異)는 잡초(雜草)에 비(比)해서는 상대적(相對的)으로 적었다. 본(本) 시험(試驗)에 사용(使用)된 모든 초종중(草種中)에서 가장 적은 수(數)의 기공(氣孔)을 가진 초종(草種)은 사마귀풀(표면(表面) 17개(個), 이면(裏面) 54개(個))과 쇠비름(표면(表面) 20개(個), 이면(裏面) 17개(個))였고, 반대(反對)로 가장 많은 기공(氣孔)을 가진 초종(草種)은 꽃여뀌 (표면(表面) 449개(個), 이면(裏面) 511개(個))였으며 기공(氣孔)크기에 있어서는 콩, 자귀풀, 여뀌바늘(이면(裏面)) 및 고들빼기(이면(裏面)) 등(等)은 대조초종(對照草種)이었던 강피보다 절반이하(折半以下)의 크기였고 반대(反對)로 기공(氣孔)의 크기가 가장 컸던 초종(草種)은 쇠비름과 사마귀풀로써 피보다 6~7배(倍) 더 큰 기공(氣孔)을 갖고 있었다. 3. 대부분(大部分)의 초종(草種)들은 잎이면(裏面)의 기공수(氣孔數)가 잎표면(表面)의 기공수(氣孔數)보다 많았는데, 특(特)히 여뀌바늘과 고들빼기는 잎이면(裏面)에 mm2mm2당(當) 300여개(餘個) 더 많이 분포(分布)하고 있었다. 그러나 잎표면(表面)에 더 많은 기공(氣孔)을 가진 초종(草種)들은 쇠비름, 소리쟁이, 마디풀, 강아지풀, 민바랭이, 돌피 등(等)과 같이 주(主)로 밭에 생육(生育)하는 C4C4 식물(植物)과 논에 자라는 여뀌, 밭뚝외풀과 수종(數種)의 벼품종(品種)들이었다(UPLRI-5, 풍산벼, 진흥(振興), 영덕(盈德)벼, 왜도(矮稻)-C). 4. 알방동사니, 금방동사니 및 너도방동사니는 잎표면(表面)에는 기공(氣孔)이 없고, 잎이면(裏面)에만 기공(氣孔)이 분포(分布)되어 있었고, 가래는 반대(反對)로 잎표면(表面)에만 기공(氣孔)이 분포(分布)되어 있으며, 잎이면(裏面)는 극(極)히 드물게 분포(分布)되거나 거의 퇴화(退化)되어 있었다. 5. 벼품종(品種)의 기공수(氣孔數)는 품종간(品種間)의 차이(差異)도 컸지만, 품종유형간(品種類型間) 차이(差異)도 큰 경향(傾向)을 보였는데 전체적(全體的)으로 볼 때 통일형(統一型) 품종(品種)이 가장 많은 수(數)의 기공(氣孔)을 가지고 있었고, 다음은 인도형(印度型) 품종(品種), 일본형(日本型) 품종(品種)의 순(順)이였다. 가장 적은 수(數)의 기공(氣孔)을 가졌던 일본형(日本型) 품종(品種)들도 1960년대(年代) 이후(以後)에 육성(育成), 보급(普及)된 품종(品種)들이 1960년대(年代) 이전(以前)에 재배(栽培)되었던 재래종(在來種)과 도입종(導入種)보다 많은 수(數)의 기공(氣孔)을 가졌다. 기공(氣孔)의 크기에 있어서는 1960년대(年代) 이전(以前)의 재래종(在來種)과 도입종(導入種)이 가장 큰 기공(氣孔)을 갖고 있었다. 전체(全體) 벼품종중(品種中)에서 진흥(振興)은 가장 적은 수(數)(≒≒ 150개(個))의 기공(氣孔)을 갖고 있었고, 유신(維新)은 가장 많은수(數)(표면(表面) 350개(個), 이면(裏面) 449개(個))의 기공(氣孔)을 가진 품종(品種)이였으며, 이 밖에 mm2mm2당(當) 350개(個) 이상(以上) 분포(分布)된 품종(品種)들은 삼강(三剛)벼, 밀양(密陽) 23호(號), 운봉(雲峰)벼 등(等)이였다.

Stomata in Floating Leaves

Figures 1-8. Hepaticae and Pteridophyta, habit sketches and leaf segments. Figure 1. Ricciocarpus natans (× 2.5). Figure 2. R. natans (× 10). Figure 3. Ceratopteris pteridoides (× 0.12). Figure 4. C. pteridoides (× 100). Figure 5. Azolla mexicana (× 30). Figure 6. Salvinia molesta (× 0.3). Figure 7. S. molesta (× 110). Figure 8. Salvinia natans (× 120)

Anatomical Observations on Floating Leaves

Kaul R. B. (1976)

Robert B. Kaul

Figures 9-18. Dicotyledons: Nymphaeaceae. Figure 9. Nuphar variegatum (× 115). Figure 10. Nelumbo lutea (× 180). Figure 11. Victoria sp. (× 15). Figure 12. Victoria sp. (× 0.2). Figure 13. Nymphaea tuberosa (× 55). Figure 14. Nymphaea daubeniana (× 55). Figures 15 and 16, Nymphaea spp. (× 1.5). Figure 17. Victoria sp. (× 0.4). Figure 18. Victoria sp. (× 0.03).

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska – Lincoln – Aquatic Botany 2: 215-234 – https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/77934293.pdf

https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/bioscifacpub/461/

Figures 19-34. Dicotyledons. Figure 19. Cabomba caroliniana (× 75). Figure 20. C. caroliniana (× 1), Figure Brasenia schreberi (× 80). Figure 22. Polygonum coccineum (× 130). Figure 23. P. coccineum (× 0.2). Figure 24. Trapa natans (× 0.08), 0.3. Figure 25. T. natans (× 150). Figure 26. Nymphoides indica (× 120). Figure 27. Ranunculus flabellaris (× 130). Figure 28. R. flabellaris (× 0.5). Figure 29. Nymphoides peltata (× 110). Figure 30. N. peltata (× 80). Figure 31. N. indica (× 0.3). Figure 32. N. peltata (× 0.1). Figure 33. Callitriche palustris (× 1). Figure 34. C. palustris (× 60).

Abstract

An examination of 24 genera of aquatic plants having floating leaves and leaf-like thalli has been made. Functional stomata occur on the adaxial sides of floating leaves of angiosperms and some ferns, and in some floating leaves there are stomata on the abaxial surface as well. Most floating leaves have prominently chambered mesophyll, and in some instances the chambers are locally enlarged and form buoys.

Figures 35-43. Broad-leaved monocotyledons. Figure 35. Potamogeton nodosus (× 28). Figure 36. Boottia eordata (× 45). Figure 37. B. eordata (× 0.3). Figure 38. Limnobium spongia (× 15). Figure 39. L. spongia (× 0.8). Figure 40. L. spongia (× 0.08). Figure 41. Hydrocleis nymphoides (× 45). Figure 42. H. nymphoides (× 1.2). Figure 43. H. nymphoides (× 0.1)

Figures 44-53. Narrow-leaved monocotyledons and Lemnaceae. Figure 44. Sparganium fluctuans (× 60). Figure 45. S. minimum (× 60). Figure 46. S. minimum (× 0.3). Figure 47. Glyceria borealis (x 300). Figure Zizania aquatica (× 100). Figure 49. Z. aquatica (× 1). Figure 50. Aponogeton distachyos (× 100)