A holocene CO2 record from the stomatal index of subfossil Salix herbacea L.


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Salix herbacea

A holocene CO2 record from the stomatal index of subfossil Salix herbacea L. leaves from northern Sweden.

Rundgren M., Beerling D. (1999)


in The Holocene 9: 509-513.

(http://hol.sagepub.com/content/9/5/509) –



A stomatal-based method of palaeo-CO2 estimation has been applied to a temporally detailed sequence of leaves from a high-latitude lake (68°N) in northern Sweden spanning the last 9000 years.

The resulting atmospheric CO2 reconstruction documents the onset of a gradual increase c. 5000 years before present indicating that the carbon cycle has not been in steady state over this time.

Stable carbon isotope (δ13C) measurements of the subfossil leaves constrain the interpretation of the inferred changes in the operation of the global carbon cycle.

The δ13C data reveal no marked or systematic shifts towards more negative values indicating that the CO2 addition to the atmosphere 5000–1000 yr BP may have been predominantly of oceanic origin.

A Review of the Multiple Uses of Fossil Stomata


Paleoecology, Ploidy, Paleoatmospheric Composition, and Developmental Biology: A Review of the Multiple Uses of Fossil Stomata

by McElwain J. C., Steinthorsdottir M. (2017)

Jennifer C. McElwain, Margret Steinthorsdottir


The presence of stomata is a diagnostic trait of all living and extinct land plants with the exception of liverworts. They are preserved widely in the fossil record from anatomically pristine stomatal complexes on permineralized and charcoalified stems of the earliest land plants dating back >400 million years to isolated guard cell pairs in quaternary aged palynological samples.

Detailed study of fossil stomatal complexes has been used to track the evolution of genome size and to reconstruct atmospheric composition, to circumscribe new species to science, and to bring ancient landscapes to life by providing both habitat information and insights on fossil plant ecophysiological function and life form.

This review explores how fossil stomata can be used to advance our understanding of plant, environment, and atmospheric evolution over the Phanerozoic. We compare the utility of qualitative (e.g. presence/absence of stomatal crypts) versus quantitative stomatal traits (e.g. amphistomaty ratio) in paleoecological reconstructions.

A case study on Triassic-Jurassic Ginkgoales is provided to highlight the methodological difficulty of teasing apart the effect of genome size, ploidy, and environment on guard cell size evolution across mass extinction boundaries.

We critique both empirical and mechanistic stomatal-based models for paleoCO2 reconstruction and highlight some key limitations and advantages of both approaches.

Finally, we question if different stomatal developmental pathways have ecophysiological consequence for leaf gas exchange and ultimately the application of different stomatal-based CO2 proxy methods.

We conclude that most studies currently only capture a fraction of the potential invaluable information that can be gleaned from fossilized stomata and highlight future approaches to their study that better integrate across the disciplinary boundaries of paleobotany, developmental biology, paleoecology, and plant physiology.