Stomata development and operation in salt-grown plants
1st Edition – July 1, 2022
Book – Hardcover ISBN: 9780323912174
Editor: Sergey Shabala,
Advances in Botanical Research, Volume 103 provides a timely and comprehensive update on the current knowledge of stomata development and operation in salt-grown plants. The range of topics covered includes evolution of stomata for adaptation to saline conditions, comparative analysis of proteomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic profiles of stomata guard cells between halophytes and glycophyte species and their reprogramming under salt stress, the molecular nature of the signals that control stomata aperture and their integration at the cellular and whole-plant level, and ecophysiological aspects of stomata operation in crop and halophytes species.
Sergey Shabala is a Professor in Plant Physiology and a Head of the Stress Physiology Laboratory at the University of Tasmania; he also holds a title of a Distinguished Professor and a Director of the International Research Centre for Environmental Membrane Biology at Foshan University in China. His area of expertise is plant stress physiology and mechanisms of their adaptation to harsh environmental conditions such as drought, salinity, waterlogging, extreme temperatures, and soil acidity. Over his research career, Sergey has published over 350 peer-reviewed papers and successfully supervised to completion 42 PhD students. He is an ISI Highly Cited researcher for the last five consecutive years and in 2019 was ranked as most cited researcher in the field of Botany in the world. His H-index is 90, and his work has been cited over 27,000 times. He is a current Editor in Chief for Functional Plant Biology and a member of editorial boards of 10 international journals. He is a former president of the Australian Society of Plant Scientists and holds a title of the Visiting or Distinguished Professor in several overseas universities.
Affiliations and Expertise
Professor, Plant Physiology and a Head of the Stress Physiology Laboratory at the University of Tasmania, Australia; Distinguished Professor, Foshan University, China
The evolution of the stomatal apparatus was one of the most important steps in the early colonisation of the terrestrial environment. Even though the stomatal pores when fully open occupy between about 0.5 and 5% of the leaf surface, almost all the water transpired by plants, as well as the CO2 absorbed in photosynthesis, passes through these pores. It is only in rare cases, such as in the fern ally Stylites from the Peruvian Andes, that significant CO2 may be absorbed through the roots (Keeley et al., 1984). The central role of the stomata in regulating water vapour and CO2 exchange by plant leaves is illustrated in Figure 6.1. This figure also shows some of the complex feedback and feedforward control loops that are involved in the control of stomatal apertures and hence of diffusive conductance; these are discussed in Section 6.6.1. It is the extreme sensitivity of the stomata to both environmental and internal physiological factors that enables them to operate in a manner that optimises the balance between water loss and CO2 uptake.
This chapter outlines the fundamental aspects of stomatal physiology, their occurrence in plants, their morphology, their response to environmental factors and mechanics of operation, including a description of the various control loops illustrated in Figure 6.1. The role of the stomata in the control of photosynthesis and of water loss is discussed in more detail in Chapters 7 and 10.
The present book is the first of its own type on a most bewildering theme in plant science. This includes 13 research cum review chapters in the fields of Structure, Function and Ecology of Stomata. All the chapters are on specialised themes emanating from different schools of thought. These chapters have been written by authorities, who hail from internationally renowned centtes in their fields. Besides three articles from India, the rest come from Australia, Canada, Great Britain, Germany, Israel, Scotland, Sri Lanka and USSR. The book has been divided into three parts: Part I deals with structure of stomata, where guard cells and substomatal ion adsorbent bodies, stomatal ontogeny in some dicotyledonous families and special features of family Acanthaceae are discussed. Part 11 relates to function of stomata. Besides stomatal metabolism in Commclina, influences of certain chemicals specially ABA and hormones are also dealt with. Part 111 discusses ecology, versatility of stomatal control, responses to air humidity, stomata of arid zone plants, differences in response to environmental variables and circadian rhythms of stomata. The present book appears to be a meeting ground of different views on the structure, function and ecology of stomata, covering about 280 pages. Besides a very useful source of information for the researchers and students studying stomatal structure and behaviour in research Institutes and Universities all over the world, the present book will also serve as a useful reference for botanists in general.
Plant Hormones: Biosynthesis and Mechanisms of Action is based on research funded by the Chinese government’s National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC). This book brings a fresh understanding of hormone biology, particularly molecular mechanisms driving plant hormone actions. With growing understanding of hormone biology comes new outlooks on how mankind values and utilizes the built-in potential of plants for improvement of crops in an environmentally friendly and sustainable manner.
This book is a comprehensive description of all major plant hormones: how they are synthesized and catabolized; how they are perceived by plant cells; how they trigger signal transduction; how they regulate gene expression; how they regulate plant growth, development and defense responses; and how we measure plant hormones.
This is an exciting time for researchers interested in plant hormones. Plants rely on a diverse set of small molecule hormones to regulate every aspect of their biological processes including development, growth, and adaptation. Since the discovery of the first plant hormone auxin, hormones have always been the frontiers of plant biology.
Although the physiological functions of most plant hormones have been studied for decades, the last 15 to 20 years have seen a dramatic progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of hormone actions. The publication of the whole genome sequences of the model systems of Arabidopsis and rice, together with the advent of multidisciplinary approaches has opened the door to successful experimentation on plant hormone actions.
Bacterium-triggered stomatal closure is a functional output of plant immunity, also known as stomatal defense. This is an early response mediated by the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by the plant’s pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs). Several approaches to analyzing stomatal movement in response to bacteria have been described, but difficulties in fine-tuning the experimental procedures still exist. Here we provide a detailed method for assessing stomatal defense via high-quality microscopic imaging and explain trouble-shooting steps to obtaining robust data. Although this procedure requires minimal manipulation of the leaf sample, it is crucial to control all environmental conditions and extrinsic variables that could interfere with stomatal movement. The method described here is also suitable for in vivo characterization of stomatal response in new pathosystems and can be used in conjunction with other profiling assays to gain a detailed understanding of early PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI).