Images of Leaf Stomata

Images of Leaf Stomata: Little Things that Matter

by Clark D. (2019)

Douglas Clark,

In Microscopy Today 27(1): 12-17 –


Stomata (singular, “stoma”) are tiny pores through which plants breathe. Stomata are found on the upper and lower sides of leaves, on flower petals, on stems, and on roots.

Scientists survey plant surfaces to determine the density and size of stomata and relate these findings to properties of the environment, such as temperature and the amounts of sunlight, humidity, oxygen, and carbon dioxide in the air when a leaf is formed.

Stomata of various plants are suitable subjects for classroom laboratory activities since they may be examined by light microscopy.


Epidermal cells and stomata of some sub-tropical plant species

Fig. 1: Photographs of leaf epidermal cells (a), Abaxial surface of Vaccaryia pyramedica (20X); (b), Abaxial surface of Polygonum plebijum (40X); (c), Abaxial surface of Poa annua (40X); (d), Abaxial surface of Ochthochloa compressa (20X); (e), Adaxial surface of Lathyrus aphaca (40X); (f), Adaxial surface of Lycopersicon esculentum (20X)  

Taxonomic diversity in epidermal cells of some sub-tropical plant species

by Ahmad K., Khan M. A., Ahmad M., Shaheen N., Nazir A. (2010)


In Int. J. Agri. Bio. 12: 115-118 –

Fig. 2: Photographs of leaf epidermal cells (a), Adaxial surface of Melilotus indica (40X); (b), Abaxial surface of Melilotus indica (20X); (c), Adaxial surface of Vicia faba (40X); (d), Adaxial surface of Euphorbia helioscopia (40X); (e), Abaxial surface of Tribulus teristris (40X); (f), Abaxial surface of Polypogan monspeliensis (40X)  


A total of 40 angiosperm plant species from 38 genera of 22 families were investigated for the type and shape of leaf epidermal cells.

The result showed substantial variations in the type and shape of epidermal cells from straight to polygonal up to wavy. The present results showed that the shape of leaf epidermal cells can not play its role in correlating the taxa but is significant in delimiting the related taxa.

Stomata in Quercus

Scanning electron micrograph (sem) of an oak leaf stoma (Quercus robur). Stomata are pores that open and close in order to regulate gas exchange in a plant. A stoma comprises a pore, the aperture of which is controlled by a pair of specialised cells known as guard cells. These cells swell to close the pore and shrink to open it. Stomata are found mainly on the underside of leaves. This micrograph also clearly shows the wax platelets that cover the leaves. Magnification x7360 (x1811 at 10cm wide)

Oak Leaf Stoma (Quercus robur)

Power and Syred (2016)

In Fineartamerica –

Stomata in lilac (Syringa vulgaris)

Lilac Leaf Stomata (syringa Vulgaris)
Scanning electron micrograph (sem) of lilac leaf stomata (Syringa vulgaris). Stomata are pores that open and close in order to regulate gas exchange in a plant. A stoma comprises a pore, the aperture of which is controlled by a pair of specialised cells known as guard cells. These cells swell to close the pore and shrink to open it. Stomata are found mainly on the underside of leaves. Magnification x6590 (x1622 at 10cm wide).

Lilac Leaf Stomata (Syringa vulgaris)

Power and Syred (2016)

In Fineartamerica –

A new methodology of an automatic stomata classification and detection system

A Stomata Classification and Detection System in Microscope Images of Maize Cultivars

by Aono A. H., Nagai J. S., Dickel G. S., Marinho R. C., De Oliveira P. E. A. M., Faria F. A. (2019)

Alexandre H. Aono a, James S. Nagai a, Gabriella da S. M. Dickel b, Rafaela C. Marinho b, Paulo E. A. M. de Oliveira b, Fabio A. Faria a,∗

a Instituto de Ciéncia e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo – UNIFESP 12247-014, S˜ao José dos Campos, SP – Brazil

b Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia
Uberlandia, MG, Brazil


In biorxiv – doi:


Stomata are morphological structures of plants that have been receiving constant attention. These pores are responsible for the interaction between the internal plant system and the environment, working on different processes such as photosynthesis process and transpiration

Figure 3: Examples of stoma (a) and non-stoma (b) subimages/regions, which were manually selected and
labeled in this work.

As evaluated before, understanding the pore mechanism play a key role to explore the evolution and behavior of plants. Although the study of stomata in dicots species of plants have advanced, there is little information about stomata of cereal grasses. In addition, automated detection of these structures have been presented on the literature, but some gaps are still uncovered.

Figure 4: In-depth explanation of the stomata identification process.

This fact is motivated by high morphological variation of stomata and the presence of noise from the image acquisition step.

Figure 5: Fifteen different microscope images of Maize Cultivars used in this work.

Herein, we propose a new methodology of an automatic stomata classification and detection system in microscope images for maize cultivars. In our experiments, we have achieved an approximated accuracy of 97.1% in the identification of stomata regions using classifiers based on deep learning features.

Figure 6: Different types of noise present in the microscopic images. (a) the usage of cyanoacrylate glue can
generate air bubbles; (b) leaves residuals might be captured by the microscope; (c) the leaves might bend and
generate grooves in the image; (d) degradated stomata due to biological factors; and (e) low image quality due
to equipment limitations.

Stomata as an example of meristemoid development

Pattern formation in plant tissues

by Sachs T. (1991)

Tsvi sachs,

Book Cambridge: Cambridge University Press – pp.xii + 234 pp. ref.27 pp.  – ISBN :0521248655 –


The main purpose of this book is to consider the patterning of plant tissue using available concepts of the controls of patterning wherever possible, and to identify where modifications to these concepts are required, the general aim being to define broad principles concerning the specification of biological form.

This book comprises a series of related research essays, each chapter dealing with a defined problem and meant to be as self-contained as possible. Titles of the chapters are as follows: Interactions of developing organs; Hormones as correlative agents; Callus and tumor development; The polarization of tissues; The canalization of vascular differentiation; Cell lineages; Stomata as an example of meristemoid development; Expressions of cellular interactions; Apical meristems; The localization of new leaves; A temporal control of apical differentiation; and Generalizations about tissue patterning. Author and subject indexes are provided.