Stomata in woody plants

 

 

Morphological characteristics of leaves and stems of selected Texas woody plants

by Meyer R. E., Meola S. M. (1978)

IN COOPERATION WITH TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

R. E. Meyer, PLANT PHYSIOLOGIST, AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE DEPARTMENT OF RANGE SCIENCE, TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY COLLEGE STATION, TEX. 77843

S. M. Meola, RESEARCH ENTOMOLOGIST, AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE VETERINARY TOXICOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY RESEARCH LABORATORY COLLEGE STATION, TEX. 77840

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in USDA Techn. Bulletin no. 1564, 200 pp. –

https://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/CAT78702502/PDF

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Stomatal types

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Diagrammatic representation of different types of stoma in dicotyledons and monocotyledons. Guard cells are hatched. The other are subsidiary cells/epidermal cells.

 

Top 8 Types of Stoma in the Epidermis | Plants

Prateeksha L. (x)

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In addition to the above five types of stoma in dicotyledons Van Cotthem illustrated two more types of stoma, which are as follows (Fig. 12.10):

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/plant-anatomy/epidermis/top-8-types-of-stoma-in-the-epidermis-plants/69146

The following points highlight the top eight types of stoma in the epidermis. The types are: 1. Anomocytic 2. Anisocytic 3. Paracytic 4. Diacytic 5. Actinocytic 6. Gramineous 7. Hemiparacytic 8. Hexacytic.

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Stebbins and Khush did not propose any terminology to aid their concepts and distinguished them as First type, Second type, Third type and Fourth type which are as follows (Fig. 12.11):

 

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Five types of guard cells of stomata

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Figure 1. A. Dumbbell type (Cyanodon). R. Rectangular type-A (Cyperus). C. Rectangular type-B (Eriocaulon). D, E. Elliptic type (Scilla i+ Mo//uyo respectively). F. Right-angle type (Azolla). y, Guard cell; p, pore; s, subsidiary cell; t, thick-walled areas; th, thin-walled areas.

 

The taxonomic value of guard cells seen in surface view

by Rajagopal T., Ramayya N. (1977)

T. KAJAGOPAL, Department of Botany, Arts and Science College, Warangal-l, A. P., India

N. RAMAYYA, Plant Anatomy and Taxonomy Laboratory, Department oj Botany, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India

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in Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 74: 57-61 –

https://watermark.silverchair.com/j.1095-8339.1977

Abstract

Guard cells, as seen in surface view, are classified into five types; dumb-bell type, rectangular type-A, rectangular type-B, elliptic type and right-angle type.

It is proposed that this more detailed classification may have value at higher taxonomic levels, particularly within the Monocotyledones.

The pattern of cellulose crystallinity in stomata of floating plants was altered as a consequence of similar evolutionary pressures

 

 

Permanently open stomata of aquatic angiosperms display modified cellulose crystallinity patterns

by Shtein I., Popper Z. A., Harpaz-Saad S. (2017)

Ilana Shtein, Zoë A. Popper, Smadar Harpaz-Saad,

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel,

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in Plant Signaling & Behavior 12(7):  – https://doi.org/10.1080/15592324.2017.1339858 – Article: e1339858 –

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15592324.2017.1339858?scroll=top&needAccess=true&journalCode=kpsb20

Abstract

Most floating aquatic plants have stomata on their upper leaf surfaces, and usually their stomata are permanently open.

We previously identified 3 distinct crystallinity patterns in stomatal cell walls, with angiosperm kidney-shaped stomata having the highest crystallinity in the polar end walls as well as the adjacent polar regions of the guard cells.

A numerical bio-mechanical model suggested that the high crystallinity areas are localized to regions where the highest stress is imposed. Here, stomatal cell wall crystallinity was examined in 4 floating plants from 2 different taxa: basal angiosperms from the ANITA grade and monocots.

It appears that the non-functional stomata of floating plants display reduced crystallinity in the polar regions as compared with high crystallinity of the ventral (inner) walls. Thus their guard cells are both less flexible and less stress resistant.

Our findings suggest that the pattern of cellulose crystallinity in stomata of floating plants from different families was altered as a consequence of similar evolutionary pressures.

Do corollas have stomata?

 

 

Do corollas have stomata?

Teixido A. J. (2017)

Alberto_Teixido
Alberto L. Teixido, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brasil

https://www.researchgate.net/post/Do_corollas_have_stomata

Evidence suggests that petals have none (Patiño and Grace 2002) or only few stomata and that water loss regulation is very limited and largely depends on their cuticle physics (Nobel 2009). Does anybody know if there is any particular study about this? How do corollas regulate water loss?
Nobel, P.S., 2009. Physicochemical and Environmental Plant Physiology. Elsevier Academic Press, Toronto.
Patiño, S., Grace, J., 2002. The cooling of convolvucaceous flowers in a tropical environment. Plant Cell Environ. 25, 41–51.
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ANSWERS TO THIS QUESTION :

Structure, Number, Distribution and Type of Stomata

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Stomata: Structure, Number, Distribution and Type of Stomata | Transpiration

by Kumar S. (2015)

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in Biology Discussion, 26 Oct. 2015 –

http://www.biologydiscussion.com/transpiration/stomata/stomata-structure-number-distribution-and-type-of-stomata-transpiration/14880

Let us make in-depth study of the structure, number, distribution and types of stomata.

Stomata was discovered by Pfeffer & name ‘stomata’ was given by Malphigii. Stomata cover 1-2% of leaf area. It is minute pore present in soft aerial parts of the plant. Algae, fungi and submerged plants do not possess stomata.

(a) Stomata are minute pores of eliptical shape, consists of two specialized epidermal cell called guard cells.

(b) The guard cells are kidney shape in dicotyledon and dumbell shape in monocotyledon.

(c) The wall of the guard cell surrounding the pore is thicken and inelastic due to rest of the walls are thin, elastic and semi-permeable.

(d) Each guard cell has a cytoplasmic lining, central vacuole. It cytoplasm contains single nucleus and number of chloroplast. The chloroplast of guard cell are capable of very poor photosynthesis, because the absence of RUBISCO enzyme.

(e) Guard cells are surrounded by modified epidermal cells, known as subsidiary cells or accessory cells, which supports in the movement of guard cells.

(f) The Size and shape of stoma and guard cell vary from plant to plant. When fully open, the stomatal pore measures 3-12 in width and 10-40 in length.

(g) In many gymnosperms and xerophytic plants {plants growing in desert), the stomata are present embedded deeply in the leaves, so that they are not exposed to sunlight directly. Such deeply embedded stomata are called sunken stomata. This is an adaptation to check excessive transpiration in these plants.