Stomata (singular, “stoma”) are tiny pores through which plants breathe. Stomata are found on the upper and lower sides of leaves, on flower petals, on stems, and on roots.
Scientists survey plant surfaces to determine the density and size of stomata and relate these findings to properties of the environment, such as temperature and the amounts of sunlight, humidity, oxygen, and carbon dioxide in the air when a leaf is formed.
Stomata of various plants are suitable subjects for classroom laboratory activities since they may be examined by light microscopy.
A total of 40 angiosperm plant species from 38 genera of 22 families were investigated for the type and shape of leaf epidermal cells.
The result showed substantial variations in the type and shape of epidermal cells from straight to polygonal up to wavy. The present results showed that the shape of leaf epidermal cells can not play its role in correlating the taxa but is significant in delimiting the related taxa.
Stomata are morphological structures of plants that have been receiving constant attention. These pores are responsible for the interaction between the internal plant system and the environment, working on different processes such as photosynthesis process and transpiration stream.
As evaluated before, understanding the pore mechanism play a key role to explore the evolution and behavior of plants. Although the study of stomata in dicots species of plants have advanced, there is little information about stomata of cereal grasses. In addition, automated detection of these structures have been presented on the literature, but some gaps are still uncovered.
This fact is motivated by high morphological variation of stomata and the presence of noise from the image acquisition step.
Herein, we propose a new methodology of an automatic stomata classification and detection system in microscope images for maize cultivars. In our experiments, we have achieved an approximated accuracy of 97.1% in the identification of stomata regions using classifiers based on deep learning features.
The main purpose of this book is to consider the patterning of plant tissue using available concepts of the controls of patterning wherever possible, and to identify where modifications to these concepts are required, the general aim being to define broad principles concerning the specification of biological form.
This book comprises a series of related research essays, each chapter dealing with a defined problem and meant to be as self-contained as possible. Titles of the chapters are as follows: Interactions of developing organs; Hormones as correlative agents; Callus and tumor development; The polarization of tissues; The canalization of vascular differentiation; Cell lineages; Stomata as an example of meristemoid development; Expressions of cellular interactions; Apical meristems; The localization of new leaves; A temporal control of apical differentiation; and Generalizations about tissue patterning. Author and subject indexes are provided.