The stomatal size and type from the shading and ornamental plants in Pontianak

Description of Stomatal Sizes and Types from
Several Shading and Ornamental Plants in Pontianak West Kalimantan

Vivin D., Daningsih E. (2021)

Dhea Vivin K., Entin Daningsih,

Universitas Tanjungpura, Pontianak, Indonesia


KOBI-2019 -EPiC Series in Biological Sciences 1: 149–157 –


Leaf epithelium and stomata

Italiano: Epitelio fogliare con stomi in evidenza. Si osservano grandi cellule epiteliali e cellule di guardia più rotondeggianti. All’interno di queste cellule, che delimitano la rima stomatica, si possono osservare dei cloroplasti disposti marginalmente.L’osservazione è stata effettuata con un microscopio ottico in campo chiaro senza aggiunta di coloranti.
English: Leaf epithelium with stomata in evidence. Large epithelial cells and rounded guard cells can be observed. Inside these cells, which delimit the stomatic pore, can be observed some chloroplasts placed marginally. The observation was carried out with a light field optical microscope without the addition of dyes.
26 March 2018,
Emilio Ermini
Italiano: Epitelio fogliare con stomi in evidenza. Si osservano grandi cellule epiteliali e cellule di guardia più rotondeggianti. All’interno di queste cellule, che delimitano la rima stomatica, si possono osservare dei cloroplasti disposti marginalmente.L’osservazione è stata effettuata con un microscopio ottico in campo chiaro senza aggiunta di coloranti. –

File:Leaf epithelium, stomata and guard cells.jpg

Wikimedia Commons/ Emilio Ermini (2019) – –,_stomata_and_guard_cells.jpg

Photos of stomata (Pinterest)

Digital Eclipse Image Gallery
‘Stomata on Rice Plant Leaf’ Photographic Print – Micro Discovery | AllPosters.com
PX12-017a.jpg | Kuhn Photo
PX12-017a Plant Stomata – guard cells closed – Zebrina spp. – 400x –
PX12-016a.jpg | Kuhn Photo
PX12-016a Plant Stomata – guard cells opened – Zebrina spp. – 400x –

The position of bryophytes in the land plant tree using a multitude of phylogenetic techniques, tracing the evolutionary history of stomatal associated genes

Brogan J. Harris,

A Phylogenetic Investigation into the Evolutionary History of Stomata and Land Plants

Harris B. J. (2022)

PhD Thesis The University of Bristol –


The origin of land plants was accompanied by new adaptations to life on land, including the evolution of stomata – pores on the surface of plants that regulate gas exchange. The genes that underpin the development and function of stomata have been extensively studied in model angiosperms such as Arabidopsis thaliana. However, little is known about stomata in bryophytes and other early diverging lineages, as a result their evolutionary origins and ancestral function remain poorly understood. The lack of consensus regarding stomatal evolution can partly be ascribed to the evolutionary history of land plants also being uncertain, most notably the position of the bryophytes. Here, I resolve the position of bryophytes in the land plant tree using a multitude of phylogenetic techniques, trace the evolutionary history of stomatal associated genes, and reconstruct the gene content of the ancestral land plant. The results presented in this thesis suggest that bryophytes form a monophyletic group. The analysis of stomatal-associated genes in the light of bryophyte monophyly revealed that the genes were more ancient than previously appreciated. The analysis shows that a range of core guard cell genes trace back to the common ancestor of all embryophytes. These analyses suggest that the first embryophytes possessed stomata that were more sophisticated than previously envisioned, and that the stomata of bryophytes have undergone reductive evolution, including their complete loss in the liverwort lineage. Analysis of ancestral gene content revealed that the first embryophytes were more complex than stem bryophytes – that is, reductive evolution is not exclusive to stomatal-associated genes, but affects the genes encoding many functional and developmental pathways in bryophyte genomes. Contemporary lineages of embryophytes have diversified substantially along distinct trajectories, resulting in significant genomic disparity between extant bryophytes and tracheophytes.

Stomata in succulents

Stomata in succulent leaves

Outreach T. (2020) – – Microcosmos –

TCIS Outreach,

At the peak of summer, the potted plants in my balcony get an extra dose of sunlight! One of these plants is the Ceylon spinach (Talinum fruticosum)I noticed that during summer its leaves are curled up most of the time. I guessed the excess of sunlight or wet soil may be the cause.

I wanted to observe the stomata of its leaves, so I peeled off the lower epidermis This is easy to do as the leaf is soft and thick (the nail polish method is not required).

Just as I have done countless times with other leaf peels, I placed this peel with the help of cellotape on a glass slide to view under the Foldscope. Alas, it wouldn’t work! The tape got foggy in no time to give a (beautiful) cloudy image with some flowing particles!


Stomata in weeds

The use of taxonomic studies to the identification of wetlands weeds

Butt A. K., Zafar M., Ahmad M., Kayani S., Bahadur S., Ullah F., Khatoon S. (2020)

Maryam A. Butt a-d, Muhammad Zafar a, Mushtaq Ahmad a, Sadaf Kayani b, Saraj Bahadur c, Fazal Ullah e, Shazia Khatoon d,

a Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid- i- Azam University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan.

b Mohi-ud-Din Islamic University Nerian Sharif, AJK.

c College of Forestry, Hainan University Haikou 570228, China.

d Department of Botany, University of Kotli Azad Jammu and Kashmir.

e CAS Key Laboratory of Mountain Ecological Restoration and Bioresource Utilization and Ecological Restoration, Biodiversity Conservation Key Laboratory
of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Science, China.


Adv Weed Sci. 39:e222645 –;39:000013



Palyno-anatomy of wetland species belonging to 10 families was studied in the present research work through light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), to find valuable taxonomic characters.


24 weeds were collected from different wetlands of Azad Kashmir.
Taxonomic tools like light microscopic and scanning electron microscopic
techniques are used for the proper identification of wetland weeds.

Results: The results show diversity among the qualitative and quantitative
characters of epidermal cells, stomata, trichomes, and stomatal pore
on both leaf surfaces. In accordance with these variations, a taxonomic
key was prepared by using these characters for the identification and
differentiation of wetland plant species. In pollen evaluations, variations
were observed among exine sculpturing, the number of pores, exine
thickness, and diameter of pollens.

Conclusions: Based on our findings it will be helpful for the taxonomist
to identify other wetland species by using these micro-morphological
characters. This study also indicates that at different taxonomic levels,
LM and SEM of pollen and epidermal morphology is explanatory and
significant to identify plants up to the species level.


3.2.2 Stomatal morphology
Variations among stomata were also observed in upper
and lower surfaces of the leaf epidermis in all 24 species of
wetland. Three types of stomata were studied, i.e. Anomocytic,
Anisocytic, and Paracytic. Paracytic stomata were observed
in 12 species; anomocytic type of stomata was found in 11
species remaining 2 species had anisocytic stomata. Large
stomatal sizes were observed in R. repens and minimum size
was observed in A. sessilis on the upper surface, while on lower
surface size ranges from 49.75 µm R. repens to minimum
(11.75) µm in R. scleratus as mentioned in Table 3. Based on
width, lower and upper surfaces showed variation. The largest
stomata on the upper surface are found in R. repens 38.6 µm
and smaller are found in P. lanceolata 8.25 µm. On the lower
surface, R. repens 33.75µm has a maximum stomata size while
the minimum size is observed in R. scleratus 6.75 µm (Figure

5). The upper epidermal surface was observed to have a large
size of stomatal pore than lower surfaces in a continuous
manner. R. repens 41.85 µm has the largest size of stomatal
pore on the upper epidermis while R. scleratus L (11 µm)
has a minimum mean size of the stomatal pore. Similarly,
on lower epidermis R. repens 36.2 µm has the largest size of

pore while A. viridis 8.75 µm has the smallest pore size. The
stomatal index of the species varied from the highest 86.5%
R. sceleratus to the minimum 4.6% Verbascum thapsus L. on
the upper epidermis, while at the lower epidermis maximum
stomatal index is 96.15% P. maculosa and minimum 3.5%
Amaranthus spinosus L. (Table 3) (Figure 3).

Stomata (in Yoruba language)

Stoma la Stomata

Ifiwera Awon Oro (2022)

Living in Belgium –

Ninu botany, stoma kan (pupọ “stomata”), ti a tun pe ni stomate (ọpọ “stomates”) (lati Greek στόμα, “ẹnu”), jẹ iho, ti a rii ninu epidermis ti awọn ewe, awọn eso, ati awọn ara miiran, iyẹn sise gaasi paṣipaarọ. Pore ​​naa ni aala nipasẹ bata ti awọn sẹẹli parenchyma pataki ti a mọ si awọn sẹẹli ẹṣọ ti o ni iduro fun ṣiṣatunṣe iwọn ti ṣiṣi stomatal.

Oro naa jẹ igbagbogbo lo ni apapọ lati tọka si gbogbo eka stomatal, ti o ni awọn sẹẹli ti o so pọ ati pore funrararẹ, eyiti a tọka si bi ṣiṣan stomatal. Afẹfẹ wọ inu ọgbin nipasẹ awọn ṣiṣi wọnyi nipasẹ itankale gaasi, ati pe o ni erogba oloro ati atẹgun, eyiti a lo ninu photosynthesis ati isunmi, ni atele. Atẹgun ti a ṣe bi ọja-ọja ti photosynthesis tan kaakiri si oju-aye nipasẹ awọn ṣiṣi kanna. Paapaa, oru omi n tan kaakiri nipasẹ stomata sinu afẹfẹ ni ilana kan ti a pe ni gbigbe.

Stomata wa ninu iran sporophyte ti gbogbo awọn ẹgbẹ ọgbin ilẹ ayafi awọn ẹdọ. Ninu awọn ohun ọgbin iṣan, nọmba, iwọn ati pinpin stomata yatọ lọpọlọpọ. Awọn dicotyledons nigbagbogbo ni stomata diẹ sii lori oju isalẹ ti awọn leaves ju oju oke lọ. Monocotyledons bii alubosa, oat ati agbado le ni nipa nọmba kanna ti stomata lori awọn oju ewe mejeeji. Ninu awọn eweko ti o ni awọn ewe lilefoofo loju omi, a le rii stomata nikan lori epidermis ti oke ati awọn leaves ti o jinlẹ le ni stomata patapata. Pupọ julọ awọn eya igi ni stomata nikan lori oju ewe isalẹ. Awọn leaves pẹlu stomata lori mejeji oke ati isalẹ ewe ni a pe ni awọn ewe amphistomatous; awọn leaves pẹlu stomata nikan lori ilẹ isalẹ jẹ hypostomatous, ati awọn leaves pẹlu stomata nikan lori oke ni epistomatous tabi hyperstomatous. Iwọn yatọ laarin awọn eya, pẹlu awọn ipari ipari si opin lati 10 si 80 µm ati iwọn ti o wa lati diẹ si 50 µm.

Stomata 2020

Stomata 2020

Rundgren L. (2020)

Linnea Rundgren,

Echo active

STOMATA 2020 Is a science-art collaboration between a visual artist/electron microscopist and an ethnobotanist. The project revolves around plant physiology, ethnobotany and climate research.

Scientific photographer Linnea Rundgren is imaging the stomata of culturally significant plant species, using a scanning electron microscope. The aim is to make a traveling photographic exhibition and a book on the topic of plant physiology, plant use in indigenous cultures and climate change research. The plants used for the project are carefully selected in collaboration with ethnobotanist Kathleen Harrison, based on their relevance for various human cultures throughout history.

Current status:
Recently completed sample collection at Botanical Dimensions in Hawaii! Now gathering funds for lab work and manufacture of art pieces and book.



Vossen R. (xxxx)

Rolf Vossen,


Microscopy of Nature –


Stomata are small openings that mainly occur on the underside of leaves. They are surrounded by specialised cells and they regulate the gas exchange between the plant and it’s environment, the plant is ‘breathing’ through them, as it were. Stomata are very recognizable by the two kidney- or bean-shaped guard cells that regulate the size of the opening. The guard cells are specialised epidermal cells which contain vacuoles that change their shape when water is absorbed due to a process called turgor, causing the stomata to open. The stomata are opened by stimuli like high humidity and bright light. Depending on the plant family, guard cells are often surrounded by so-called subsidiary cells.

As for the morphology of stomata, some different shapes can be distinguished:

● anomocytic: without subsidiary cells

● paracytic: with lateral subsidiary cells oriented parallel with the guard cells

● tetracytic: with both lateral and polar subsidiary cells

Stomatal shapes in three different monocot plants with indication of guard cells (1) and subsidiary cells (2). A: anomocyticDracaena. B: paracytic, maize. C: tetracyticTradescantia.

Stomata are fascinating objects to study, in each plant they look a bit different or are positioned differently. To observe stomata we need to peel off the epidermis from the underside of a leaf. If you tear a leaf apart, often a small piece of the epidermis will come off. Especially with thicker leaves this works quite well. Easy to begin with are the leaves of HostaPrunus laurocerasus (Cherry laurel) and Tradescantia.


Hostas are popular garden plants. In garden parks you will see them a lot. In the garden park where I have a house, they are also very popular with snails. There are almost no undamaged specimens to be found.

The hosta is a monocotyledonous plant native to East Asia. The epidermal cells are not very typical for a monocot plant and there are no subsidiary cells to be seen. The stomata morphology can therefore be labeled as anomocytic.

Stomata Hosta

Stomata in a Hosta leaf photographed with oblique illumination. Objective: Carl Zeiss Apo 40/1.0.



Stomatal traits

Stomata: structure, types and functions

Mostofa S. (2022)

Shraboni Mostofa,


Plantlet March 10, 2022 –

Like all other living beings plants have to exchange gaseous molecules. Animals have noses that help them to breathe in and breathe out to exchange gases. But what about plants? How do plants breathe in and breathe out? Well, plants have stomata or tiny pores on their epidermis that help them to exchange gases with the atmosphere.

We cannot see stomata with our naked eyes. There are about 300 stomata per square mm area of the leaf surface.

In this article, we will know about the structure, different types and functions of stomata.