The Molecular Basis of the Evolution and Diversity of Stomatal Development

Diversity of Stomata across Land Plant Taxa.A phylogenetic tree of extant and extinct (†) land plants includes evolutionary traits supporting success on land. The wide diversity of stomatal complexes among these groups is represented by epidermal tracings of P. patens ([A]; nonvascular), Selaginella kraussiana ([B]; lycophyte, vascular), Marsilea macropoda ([C]; fern, vascular), Victoria amazonica ([D]; Nymphaeaceae, basal angiosperm), Houttuynia cordata ([E]; Piperales, magnoliid), Oplimenus hirtellus ([F]; Poales, monocot grass), Gardenia taitensis ([G]; Gentianales, eudicot angiosperm), and Begonia rex-cultorum ‘Roberta’ ([H]; Cucurbitales, eudicot angiosperm). Stomata are colored green. Note that the stomata of Physcomitrella have a single GC, while the GCs of Oplimenus, a grass, have a dumbbell shape. Only HouttuyniaGardenia, and Begonia show evidence of asymmetric amplifying divisions within the stomatal lineage. Physcomitrella is traced from a scanning electron microscopy image by L. Pillitteri.

Out of the Mouths of Plants: The Molecular Basis of the Evolution and Diversity of Stomatal Development

By Peterson K. M., Rychel A. L., Torii K. U. (2010)

Kylee M. Peterson,a,1 Amanda L. Rychel,a,1 and Keiko U. Toriia,b,2


a Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195
b PREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0075, Japan

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In The Plant Cell February 2010, 22 (2) 296-306 – DOI: https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.109.072777

http://www.plantcell.org/content/22/2/296/F1

Abstract

Stomata are microscopic valves on the plant epidermis that played a critical role in the evolution of land plants. Studies in the model dicot Arabidopsis thaliana have identified key transcription factors and signaling pathways controlling stomatal patterning and differentiation. Three paralogous Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix proteins, SPEECHLESS (SPCH), MUTE,
and FAMA, mediate sequential steps of cell-state transitions together with their heterodimeric partners SCREAM (SCRM) and SCRM2. Cell–cell signaling components, including putative ligands, putative receptors, and mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, orient asymmetric cell divisions and prevent overproduction and clustering of stomata. The recent
availability of genome sequence and reverse genetics tools for model monocots and basal land plants allows for the examination of the conservation of genes important in stomatal patterning and differentiation. Studies in grasses have revealed that divergence of SPCH-MUTE-FAMA predates the evolutionary split of monocots and dicots and that these proteins show conserved and novel roles in stomatal differentiation. By contrast, specific asymmetric cell divisions in
Arabidopsis and grasses require unique molecular components. Molecular phylogenetic analysis implies potential conservation of signaling pathways and prototypical functions of the transcription factors specifying stomatal differentiation.

Stomata 2020

https://www.newphytologist.org/symposia/46

On behalf of the New Phytologist Trust and symposium organisers, I am pleased to invite you to ‘Stomata 2020’, which will take place at the New Century Grand Hotel Kaifeng, China, 11–14 September 2020. 

Registration is now open.

This symposium will be held in English. 

Add to your calendar [.ics]

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Sarah Lennon
Executive Editor
New Phytologist Trust

Images of Leaf Stomata

Images of Leaf Stomata: Little Things that Matter

by Clark D. (2019)

Douglas Clark,

In Microscopy Today 27(1): 12-17 –
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S155192951800130X

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/microscopy-today/article/images-of-leaf-stomata-little-things-that-matter/FCD28B1144063608C87F06F805756F31

Abstract

Stomata (singular, “stoma”) are tiny pores through which plants breathe. Stomata are found on the upper and lower sides of leaves, on flower petals, on stems, and on roots.

Scientists survey plant surfaces to determine the density and size of stomata and relate these findings to properties of the environment, such as temperature and the amounts of sunlight, humidity, oxygen, and carbon dioxide in the air when a leaf is formed.

Stomata of various plants are suitable subjects for classroom laboratory activities since they may be examined by light microscopy.

Epidermal cells and stomata of some sub-tropical plant species

Fig. 1: Photographs of leaf epidermal cells (a), Abaxial surface of Vaccaryia pyramedica (20X); (b), Abaxial surface of Polygonum plebijum (40X); (c), Abaxial surface of Poa annua (40X); (d), Abaxial surface of Ochthochloa compressa (20X); (e), Adaxial surface of Lathyrus aphaca (40X); (f), Adaxial surface of Lycopersicon esculentum (20X)  

Taxonomic diversity in epidermal cells of some sub-tropical plant species

by Ahmad K., Khan M. A., Ahmad M., Shaheen N., Nazir A. (2010)

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In Int. J. Agri. Bio. 12: 115-118 –

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267822076_Taxonomic_Diversity_in_Epidermal_Cells_of_some_Sub-tropical_Plant_Species

Fig. 2: Photographs of leaf epidermal cells (a), Adaxial surface of Melilotus indica (40X); (b), Abaxial surface of Melilotus indica (20X); (c), Adaxial surface of Vicia faba (40X); (d), Adaxial surface of Euphorbia helioscopia (40X); (e), Abaxial surface of Tribulus teristris (40X); (f), Abaxial surface of Polypogan monspeliensis (40X)  

Abstract

A total of 40 angiosperm plant species from 38 genera of 22 families were investigated for the type and shape of leaf epidermal cells.

The result showed substantial variations in the type and shape of epidermal cells from straight to polygonal up to wavy. The present results showed that the shape of leaf epidermal cells can not play its role in correlating the taxa but is significant in delimiting the related taxa.

Stomata in Quercus

Scanning electron micrograph (sem) of an oak leaf stoma (Quercus robur). Stomata are pores that open and close in order to regulate gas exchange in a plant. A stoma comprises a pore, the aperture of which is controlled by a pair of specialised cells known as guard cells. These cells swell to close the pore and shrink to open it. Stomata are found mainly on the underside of leaves. This micrograph also clearly shows the wax platelets that cover the leaves. Magnification x7360 (x1811 at 10cm wide)

Oak Leaf Stoma (Quercus robur)

Power and Syred (2016)

In Fineartamerica –

https://fineartamerica.com/featured/1-oak-leaf-stoma-quercus-robur-power-and-syred.html

Stomata in lilac (Syringa vulgaris)

Lilac Leaf Stomata (syringa Vulgaris)
Scanning electron micrograph (sem) of lilac leaf stomata (Syringa vulgaris). Stomata are pores that open and close in order to regulate gas exchange in a plant. A stoma comprises a pore, the aperture of which is controlled by a pair of specialised cells known as guard cells. These cells swell to close the pore and shrink to open it. Stomata are found mainly on the underside of leaves. Magnification x6590 (x1622 at 10cm wide).

Lilac Leaf Stomata (Syringa vulgaris)

Power and Syred (2016)

In Fineartamerica –

https://fineartamerica.com/featured/lilac-leaf-stomata-syringa-vulgaris-power-and-syred.html