The epidermis (with stomata) and cuticle of the needles of Pinus nigra var. maritima


Electron microscopy of the epidermis and cuticle of the needles of Pinus nigra var. maritima in relation to infection by Lophodermella sulcigena

by Campbell R. (1972)

The University – Bristol – UK

in Ann. Bot. 36: 307-314

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Amphistomatic leaves in Ginkgo biloba

Photo credit: Google

Ginkgo biloba

On the occurrence of amphistomatic leaves in Ginkgo biloba L.

by Kanis A. W., Karstens K. H. ( 1963)

Leiden, TheNetherlands

in Acta Botanica Neerlandica 12: 281-286. – DOI: 10.1111/j.1438-8677.1963.tb00121.x –

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In 1957 Maácz reported the occurrence of cell configurations in the upper epidermis of the leaf of Ginkgo biloba L. suggesting the presence of rudimentary stomata. Maácz speaks, very cautiously, of “rudimentären Spuren der Spaltöffnungen”, i.e. rudimentary traces of stomata. This observation is of interest because of the fact that Ginkgo biloba is regarded as a typically hypostomatic species.

An investigation of material obtained from four different specimens of this tree growing in the Leyden Botanical Garden revealed that the upper side of leaves from long shoots from a male tree and from a juvenile tree of still unknown sex exhibited normal stomata.

The brachyblast leaves of the same trees, however, are distinctly hypostomatic. Examination of leaves from both long shoots and brachyblasts of our two female specimens showed both types of leaves to be hypostomatic. Furthermore, the leaves from a water shoot sprouting directly from the trunk of the male tree were also found, contrary to expectation, to be hypostomatic.

A possible correlation between the occurrence of stomata in the upper leaf epidermis and a more primitive type of leaf shape is discussed. This point is interesting because of the fact that fossil leaves of Ginkgoaceae from earlier geological periods are amphistomatic.

Project: Conifer stomata analysis as a tool for study of fossils


Conifer stomata analysis in Late Quaternary paleoecolgy in Scandinavia

Sweeney C. A. (2000-2004)

Charlotte A. Sweeney

in AMAP Project Portal – Abisko Scientific Research Station

The project aims to develop the use of stomata analysis as a Quaternary palaeoecological tool in Scandinavia following the lead in North America and Siberia (Hansen 1995, Gervais and MacDonald, 2001).

A key is being produced to identify the main Scandinavian conifers from their stomata.

Surface samples of lake sediment will be collected in catchments with and without the main conifers to determine the extent to which stomata are transported beyond the catchment in which the trees occur.

Paleoecological work will be carried out to obtain supplementary information about the timing of the appearance and disappearance of Larix sibirica (Kullman, 1998) and to apply the knowledge gained on the dispersibility of stomata to the arrival and increase of other conifers.

Surface lake samples have been collected from lakes in southern and central Sweden. I would like to find some small lakes to surface sample in Northern Sweden. Three promising areas with a high density of lakes have been identified around the Abisko field station and Kiruna areas.

I will use a standard surface sediment sampler and will sample between 6 and 12 lakes. This work will have wide applicability in NW Europe, replacing the use of Trautmann’s key (1953), and will contribute significantly to the increasing use of stomata as a palaeoecological tool. (see for further information)