Wax tubules on the epistomatal rims of stomata

Epicuticular wax on stomata of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mili.)

Bačić T., Krstin L., Roša J., Popović Z. (2005)

Tomislav Bačić, Ljiljana Krstin, Jadranka Roša, Željko Popović,

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Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 74(2) : – https://doi.org/10.5586/asbp.2005.021

https://pbsociety.org.pl/journals/index.php/asbp/article/view/572

Abstract

Condition of epistomatal wax on the abaxial surface of the current and previous-year needles of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mill.), both from the polluted Risnjak and “clean” Donja Dobra sites in Gorski Kotar region, both influenced by pollutants coming from Europe, during two years, three times a year, were examined with Scanning Electron Microscope.

In the course of time the wax tubules on the epistomatal rims of stomata in polluted, but also in “clean” needles surface, become fused and agglomerated rapidly to various extents of morphologically different types of amorphous wax crusts, primarily compact and particulate ones. This process begins very early, especially in polluted Risnjak site, and may be interpreted as a possible result of air pollution.

However, the recrystalization, or production of new tubules, also appears relatively quickly in mostly cases. Quantitative estimations indicate a very large total amount of amorphous wax crusts in the current-year needles, and a very high percentage of the same wax in previous-year needles.

Amorphous wax crusts cover stomatal pores, as well as the rims, disturbing the normal gas exchange. Statistically there is a signicant tendency of increase in wax degradation in the needles of the polluted site in comparison with those of the unpolluted one, but there is an insignificant wax degradation among the needles of damaged trees within each site.

These results confirmed most of the research done in our preliminary report.

Stomata and SEM and LM foliar epidermal micro-morphology of gymnosperms

Taxonomic importance of SEM and LM foliar epidermal micro-morphology: A tool for robust identification of gymnosperms

Khan R., Abidin S. Z. U., Ahmad M., Zafar M., Liu J., Lubna, Jamshed S., Kiliç Ö. (2019)

Raees Khana-b, Sheikh Zain Ul Abidinc, Mushtaq Ahmadc, Muhammad Zafarc, Jie Liud, Lubnac, Shayan Jamshedc, Ömer Kiliçe,

a Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan

b Zoological Survey of Pakistan, Ministry of Climate Change, Pakistan

c Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan

d Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan, PR China

e Department of Park and Garden Plant, Bingol University, Turkey

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Flora 255: 42-68 – ISSN 0367-2530 – https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2019.03.016

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0367253018305802

Highlights

• Variation in stomata, silica bodies (SiO2.nH2O), macrohairs, microhairs, hooks, papillae, prickles.

• Taxonomic applications of leaf epidermal SEM and Light morphology.

• Establishing key based on foliar epidermal micromorphological characters.

Abstract:

The current study reports the implication of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM) epidermal micro-morphological characters in the identification of gymnosperms of Pakistan.

A number of characters were found to be of great taxonomic significance and can be used to distinguish different species of gymnosperms with its help. Here, the foliar cuticular features of 44 gymnosperm species were assessed, in which 32 were hypostomatic, 6 were epistomatic and 6 were amphistomatic. Four different types of guard cells were observed, 27 species having crescent shaped, 10 species having rectangular, 5 species having dome-shaped, and 2 species having triangular guard cells.

Sunken type stomata were very frequent in all gymnosperm species. 27 species have different types of phytoliths, while in the remaining 17 species no phytoliths were seen. In the current study, we have recognized seven types of Florin rings, named as Type A, Type B, Type C, Type D, Type E and Type F. Three types (Type I, Type II and Type III) of epicuticular wax were also observed in the investigated species.

The quantitative character showed diversity and was useful in the complete assessment and key making. A taxonomic key based on these micro-morphological characters was prepared. The study characters (stomatal index, stomatal density, epidermal cell density and stomatal area) were also analyzed by different statistical methods. SEM and LM foliar epidermal studies were found very useful in taxonomic identification. Based on current results we recommend such studies for accurate taxonomic identification and complete phylogeny.

The structure of the stomatal complex (the shape and arrangement of the subsidiary cells) was different in each Pinus species

Figure 2. Stomatal variables: Aa, stomatal width; La, stomatal length; Ab, upper woody lamellar width; Lb, upper woodylamella length; lc, distance between the external limits of the medial lamellae borders measured at the centre; ld, distancebetween the external limits of the medial lamellae borders measured at the point at which both meet to form the stem;e, medial lamellae border width; Lt, stem length; At, stem width; a, angle of attachment of the upper woody lamella; b,angle between the stem and medial lamellae border; coef_a = Aa/La, stomatal width ratio. Terminology based on that ofFlorin (1931), Trautmann (1953) and Hansen (1995) (Appendix).

The value of leaf cuticle characteristics in the identification and classification of Iberian Mediterranean members of the genus Pinus

Garcia Alvarez S., Garcia-Amorena I., Rubiales J. M., Morla C. (2009)

SALVIA GARCÍA ÁLVAREZ, IGNACIO GARCÍA-AMORENA, JUAN M. RUBIALES, CARLOS MORLA

Unidad Docente de Botánica, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Montes, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain

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Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161: 436–448 –

https://oa.upm.es/5073/2/INVE_MEM_2009_64103.pdf

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227644426_The_value_of_leaf_cuticle_characteristics_in_the_identification_and_classification_of_Iberian_Mediterranean_members_of_the_genus_Pinus

Figure 3. Stomatal rows of Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii.

This study reports the value of leaf cuticle characteristics in the identification and classification of Iberian Mediterranean species of the genus Pinus (P. nigra subsp. salzmannii, P. pinaster, P. pinea and P. halepensis), with the aim of using these characters to identify isolated cuticles and stomata in palynology slides.

Preparations were made of the cuticles of pine needles belonging to one natural Iberian population of each of the above species. A number of epidermal morphological characteristics were then recorded with the aim of distinguishing these species from one another.

The structure of the stomatal complex (the shape and arrangement of the subsidiary cells) was different in each species. The aperture of the epistomatal chamber was significantly smaller in P. pinea than in the other species examined, and the variables recorded for the thickening of the guard cells provided relationships that clearly distinguished all four taxa.

The width and length of the stomata and the upper woody lamellae, the central distance between the external limits of the medial lamellae borders and the length of the stem were the most useful variables in this respect.

The present results contribute to the ongoing discussion regarding the taxonomic classification of the members of Pinus, and provide valuable clues for the identification of Iberian Mediterranean pine species from small pine needle fragments or isolated stomata.

After validation of the present results for multiple populations, these results could also be used to help identify fossil leaf macroremains and the scattered/isolated stomata commonly observed in palaeopalynological samples.

Stomata in Abies and Picea

Figure 1   SEM micrograph of abaxial faces from Abies species. A, B A. firma. A Stomatal band. B Stomata magnified. C, D A. holophylla. C Stomatal band. D Stomata magnified. E, F A. koreana. E Stomatal band. F Stomata magnified. G, H A. nephrolepis. G Stomatal band. H Stomata magnified. Abbreviations: gc, guard cell; mv, mid vein; sb, stomatal band; sc subsidiary cells; st, stomata. Scale bars: A, C, E, G = 1 mm; B, D, F, H = 50 µm.

Comparative leaf anatomy of some species of Abies and Picea (Pinaceae)

Ghimire B., Lee C., Yang J., Heo K. (2015)

Balkrishna Ghimire
Department of Applied Plant Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, KoreaDivision of Plant Conservation, Korea National Arboretum, Pocheon 487-829, Korea

Chunghee Lee
Korea National Arboretum, Pocheon 487-829, Korea

Jongcheol Yang
Korea National Arboretum, Pocheon 487-829, Korea

Kweon Heo 
Department of Applied Plant Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Korea

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Acta Bot. Bras. 29(3):  – https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-33062014abb0009 –

https://www.scielo.br/j/abb/a/MjNwf9Bw3VW3jbzJxKVFgJt/?lang=en

Figure 2   SEM micrograph of abaxial faces from Picea species. A, B P. abies. A Stomatal band. B Stomata magnified. C, D P. jezoensis. C Stomatal band. D Stomata magnified. E, F P. koraiensis. E Stomatal band. F Stomata magnified. Abbreviations: gc, guard cell; mv, mid vein; sb, stomatal band; sc subsidiary cells; st, stomata. Scale bars: A = 500 µm; B, D, F = 50 µm; C, E = 1 mm.

ABSTRACT

A number of conifer species are still lacking anatomical data, which is significant because morphological and anatomical data are essential for systematic study.

Leaf anatomy was studied in selected species of Abies and Picea using light and scanning electron microscopy. Both genera were found to have typical coniferous and highly xerophytic leaves with sunken stomata and an epidermis covered by a thick cuticle.

In the genus Abies, species can be differentiated by the nature of the lignified hypodermis and the number and position of resin ducts. Abies firma and A. holophylla have a continuous hypodermis whereas in A. koreana and A. nephrolepis the hypodermis is discontinuous and represented by isolated cells or groups of four or five cells.

On the other hand, in Picea leaf shape, stomata arrangement, and number, position, and nature of resin ducts are the key features for species differentiation. Picea jezoensis has a flattened leaf with stomata distributed on the adaxial surface whereas P. abies and P. koraiensis have a rectangular leaf with stomata found on surfaces.

New insights on stomata analysis of European conifers 65 years after the pioneering study of Werner Trautmann (1953)

Finsinger W., Tinner W. (2020)

Walter Finsinger1, Willy Tinner2,

1 ISEM, Univ Montpellier, CNRS, EPHE, IRD, 34095 Montpellier, France
2 Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research and Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland

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Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, Springer Verlag 29: 393-406 – 10.1007/s00334-019-00754-1

hal-02319673

https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02319673/document

Discrimination of populations considering number of rows of stomata and total number of stomata

Genetic variation in morphological and anatomical needle characteristics in Pinus brutia Ten.

Calamassi R. 1, Puglisi S. R. 2, Vendramin G. G. 2, (1988) – – Silvae Genetica 37: 5-6 –

https://www.thuenen.de/media/institute/fg/PDF/Silvae_Genetica/1988/Vol._37_Heft_5-6/37_5-6_199.pdf