Stomata in Clinacanthus (Acanthaceae)

Gambar 1.
 Morfologi Tanaman (I), Anatomi Stomata dan Trikoma Daun Tanaman Dandang Gendis(II); Stomata (S), Epidermis (E), Trikoma Grandular (TG), Lithocyst
(L) Penampang Membujur denganPerbesaran 400x

Analisis Anatomi dan Trikoma Tanaman Obat Dandang Gendis Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau

by Tambaru E., Paembonan S. A., Ura R., Tuwo M. (2019)

Elis Tambaru 1, Samuel A. Paembonan 2, Resti Ura ’2, Mustika Tuwo 1 

1 Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Universitas Hasanuddin

2 Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Hasanuddin


In Jurnal Ilmu Alam dan Lingkungan 10(1): 35 – 42 –


Research on the analysis of the anatomy of the stomatal and trichomes of themedicinal plant Dandang Gendis Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f.) Lindau in Makassar City.

This study aims to determine the anatomical structure of the stomatal and trichomes of longitudinal cross-section of leaves that are used as herbal medicines. This research method was used to spread acetone to obtain stomatal prints on the leaf surface, the data were analyzed descriptively.

The results of the analysis of the anatomy of the stomatal and trichomes of leaves of the medicinal plant Dandang Gendis Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f.) Lindau was a diacytic type of stomatal, the spread of stomatal was 

only found on the surface of the abaxial leaf including the apple type. The number of abaxial stomatal was160 stomatal/mm2. The number of epidermal cells was 748 epidermis/mm2 and abaxial 504 epidermis/mm2 , stomatal index 23.95%, and stomatal size 159.26 µm. On the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaves of Dandang Gendis Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f.) Lindau, glandular and lithocyst trichomes were encountered.

Stomata in Leucophyllum (Scrophulariaceae)

Fig. 12. Dorsal surface of leaf (Karachi. Sample) showing anisocytic stomata and trichomes.Stomata are quite infrequent on dorsal surface. Characteristically, Anticlinal walls are generally straight. (Magnification: 45 x 10 X).


by Khan D. (2018)

In Int. J. Biol. Res.6(2): 109-135 –

Fig. 13. Stomata on dorsal surface of leaf (Karachi sample). A, Anisocytic; B, Staurocytic(possibly developing to anomocytic type); C, A paracytic stoma. Magnification: 45 x 10 X,zoom: 2X)


Leucophyllum frutescens (Berlandier) I.M. Johnston collected from Oud Metha Park; Dubai(UAE) has been studied for its phytography and leaf macrometry and surface micromorphology. L. frutescens is a perennial, monoecious, microphyllous plant with silver gray green leaves and employed for making hedges. Flowers are purple bell-shaped. Calyx connate at base and corolla gamopetalous. Stamens 4 – two smaller (more or less straight), two larger (curved). Epipetalous hairs present and those around the bases of two relatively straight stamens are very long multicellular with rounded rough head. There are brown spots on white in the corolla throat. Ovary syncarpous, stigma capitate and fruit capsule.

Leaf length (LL) and breadth (LB) averaged to 2.32 ± 0.1017 and 1.14 ± 0.058 cm, respectively. LL varied from 0.7 to 3.54 cm (CV= 29.29%) and LB from 0.20 to 2.20 cm (CV=31.94%). Measured area of leaf (LAM) averaged to 1.801 ± 0.1366 cm2. LAM related with the multiplicative factor, LL x LB, as LAM = 0.735 (LL x LB)0.862 ± 0.223. The K factor determined as LAM / LL x LB averaged to 0.6716 ± 0.0241. The factor K and the power model equation were equally good in estimating leaf area on the basis of linear dimensions LL and LB.

The epidermal cells are small. In nail-polish imprints of dorsal surface of trichome-removed leaves a large number of epidermal cells (around 500 cells per mm2) were found to be present and great majority of them either abutted stomata or produced trichomes. The epidermal cells were polygonal in shape with straight thickened anticlinal walls. The pavement around the base of a trichome was seen to be formed of 1, 2, 3, 4 or more cells. The tender stem, leaves and calyx are covered with thick crop of multicellular branched dendritic trichomes. Simple conical trichomes were also present underneath the crop of dendritic trichomes. As per classification scheme of Prabhakar(2004), three types of stomata were frequently found on the leaves of L. frutescens  –  Anisocytic, tetracytic and anomocytic (rarely staurocytic also). Stomatal density on ventral surface averaged to 230.38 ± 5.23 stomata per mm2. Dorsally, stomata are infrequent (5.11 ± 1.1317 stomata per mm2) and mostly anisocytic. According to Element detection System (EDS) of SEM, the leaf tissue matrix was mainly composed of Oxygen and Carbon. Cl, Na and Mg were also present

Density and size of stomata in Vitis

Density and size of stomata in the leaves of different hybrids (Vitis sp.) and Vitis vinifera varieties

by Boso S., Gago P., Alonso-Villaverde V., Santiago J. L., Martinez M. C. (2016)

Misión Biológica de Galicia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Salcedo, Pontevedra, Spain


In Vitis 55, 17–22 (2016) – DOI:

4678-Article Text-23136-1-10-20160119.pdf


A number of studies have highlighted differenc- es in the density of stomata between Vitis species, but few have examined differences between varieties of V. vinifera. The density and size of the stomata in the lower epidermis of leaves belonging to 12 grapevine varieties, a direct producer hybrid (DPH) involving a V. vinifera and a non-vinifera parent, and the non-vini- fera rootstocks ‘SO4’ and ‘110-Richter’, were therefore examined. Transparent nail polish peel prints of the area between the main and right lateral veins were pro- duced for 10 leaves per variety. These prints were then examined under a light microscope and the number of stomata in a unit area of 0.196 mm2 counted. Image analysis software was then used to measure the length and width of all those counted. Rootstock ‘SO4’, ‘Chas- selas Dorée’, ‘Albariño’ and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ had the highest stomatal densities (all > 34 stomata per unit area), while ‘Castañal’, ‘Torrontés’ and ‘Caiño Blan- co’ and ‘Jacquez’ (DPH), had the smallest (all < 26.50 stomata per unit area). ‘Treixadura’ and ‘Caiño Blan- co’ had significantly longer and wider stomata than all the other varieties examined; the DPH ‘Jacquez’ had among the shortest and narrowest. No relationship was seen, however, between mean varietal leaf size and the stomatal density or stomatal size; nor was any seen be- tween the variables examined and the condition of be- longing to V. vinifera or not.

Stomata in Baccharis usterii

Leaf cross-section of Baccharis usterii Heering. (a), (b) Adaxial and abaxial side of theepidermis, in surface view, respectively;

Macro and Microscopic Characters of the Aerial Vegetative Organs of Carqueja: Baccharis usterii Heering

by Budel J. M., Duarte M. do R. (2010)

Jane Manfron Budel, Márcia do Rocio Duarte 

Laboratório de Farmacognosia; Departamento de Farmácia; Universidade Federal do Paraná; Av. Pref. Lothário Meissner, 632; Jardim Botânico; 80210-170; Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil


In Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol. 53(1): 123-131 –


This work aimed to study the macro and microscopic characters of the aerial vegetative organs of Baccharis usterii  for quality control purposes. The plant was prepared for light and scanning electron microscopic analyses. The stem consisted of three-winged cladodes with small leaves. In the caulinar axis, these was a uniseriate epidermis, chlorenchyma alternating with angular collenchyma, perivascular fibre caps adjoining the phloem which was outside the xylem, and parenchymatic pith. The wings and the leaves were alike, presenting a uniseriate epidermis, palisade parenchyma next to the both sides of the epidermis and spongy parenchyma traversed by minor collateral vascular bundles in the central region. In the leaf midrib, a single collateral vascular bundle was embedded in the ground parenchyma. Secretory ducts and glandular trichomes occurred in the stem and leaf.


Anomocytic stomata occurred on both sides (Figs. 3a, 3b) and they were even or slightly above the other epidermal cells (Fig. 3d).

Stomata in Piper amalago

C. Adaxial side of epidermis, showing stomata and glandular trichomes (gy= glandular trichome)

Anatomical investigations of  Piper amalago L. (jaborandi-manso) for the quality control

by Dos Santos V. L. P., Franco C. R. C., Amano E., Messias-Reason I. J., Budel J. M. (2015)

Vera L.P. dos Santosa  * 

Celia R.C. Francob 

Erika Amanoc 

Iara J. Messias-Reasond 

Jane M. Budele 

aEscola Superior de Saúde, Meio Ambiente, Sustentabilidade e Humanidade, Centro Universitário Internacional Uninter, Curitiba, PR, Brazil

bDepartamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil

cDepartamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil

dDepartamento de Patologia Médica, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil

eDepartamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazi


In Revista Brasileira do Farmacognosia 25(2) –


Piper amalago L.,

Piper amalago L., Piperaceae, popularly known as jaborandi-manso, is a shrub that spans a height of 2–7 m. It can be found in the regions of Southern America downward up to the south of Brazil. Traditionally it is used to treat digestive problems, heart problems, and burns. This study aims to conduct an anatomical investigation and analysis of the leaves and stems of P. amalago through electron scanning and optical micro techniques. The analysis showed that P. amalago has a hypostomatic leaf, with a subepidermal layer on its surface. There are grandular trichomes that resemble sacs, conic non-glandular trichomes, dorsiventral mesophyll, and a plano-convex midrib having a single vascular bundle in the center. The petiole is short with irregularly shaped and adaxially grooved. The stem is circular in shape and contains two circles of vascular bundles and a sclerenchymatic sheath in the perimedular region. These anatomical features of the Piper amalago‘s leaves and stems make it easy to pick it out among other species of the Piper genus. This is helpful when conducting quality control process.


Piper amalago L., Piperaceae, (Fig. 1A and B), from a frontal view of the blade, shows straight epidermal cell anticlinal walls with relatively thin on both sides (Figs. 1C–E and 2C). On the epidermis’ abaxial face (Figs. 1D, E and 2A) has tetracytic stomata (Figs. 1D, E and 2C). Hypostomatic leaves are common in Piperaceae (Metcalfe and Chalk, 1950), as described for P. crassinervium H.B.& K. (Albiero et al., 2005a), P. hispidum Sw. (Albiero et al., 2006), P. aduncum Vell., P. cernuum Vell., P. dilatatum Rich, P. gaudichaudianum Kunth, P. betle L. (Raman et al., 2012), P. glabratum Kunth, P. lindbergii C.DC., P. solmsianum C. DC. and, P. umbellatum Jaqc. (Gogosz et al., 2012). Amphistomatic leaves were however found in P. hispidinervum C. DC. (Nascimento and Vilhena-Potiguara, 1999) and in P. sarmentosum Roxb. (Raman et al., 2012).

D. Abaxial side of epidermis showing stomata.

Several species of Piper have tetracytic stomata (Albiero et al., 2006; Gogosz et al., 2012). However, P. arboreum Aubl. has evidenced staurocytic (Souza et al., 2009), P. crassinervium has presented both the ciclocytic and tetracytic type (Albiero et al., 2005a), P. betle has showed anisocytic, anomocytic, tetracytic, polycytic, paracytic, amphicyclic and P. sarmentosum has presented anisocytic, anomocytic, actinocytic, cyclocytic and tetracytic type (Raman et al., 2012).

In transection, the epidermis of P. amalago is uniseriate and is covered by a thin cuticle. The stomata are located slightly above the other epidermal cells (Fig. 2A).

Stomata in Baccharis (Asteraceae)

Fig.1.(A,E,I,M) BaccharisbrevifoliaDC.;(B,F,  J, N) BaccharismicrodontaDC.,(C,G,K, O)BaccharispauciflosculosaDC.,(D,H,L, P)BaccharistrilobataA.S.Oliveira& Marchiori;(A, B,C,D)vegetativeandreproductivebranch.(E, F,G,H)Abaxialsideof  leafepidermisand(I,J,K,L) adaxialsideof  leafepidermis,showingepidermalcell wallsandstomatum(st).(M,N,O,P)View of  theleafsurface,stomatum(st),striatedcuticle(ct),non-glandulartrichome(nt),andglandulartrichome(gt)by SEM;Scalebar=5 cm (A,B, C,D),50m(E,F,G,H,I,J,K,L),20m (M,N,O)

Comparative analytical micrographs of  “vassouras” (Baccharis, Asteraceae)

by Bobek V. B., Heideen G., de Oliveira C. F., de Almeida V. P., de Paula J. P., Farago P. V., Nakashima T., Budel J. M. (2016)

Vanessa B. Bobek a, Gustavo Heiden b, Camila Freitas de Oliveira a, Valter Paes de Almeida c,  Josiane Padilha de Paula d, Paulo Vitor Farago d,  Tomoe Nakashima a, Jane Manfron Budel d,

a Programa de Pós-graduacão em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil

b Embrapa Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS, Brazil

c Curso de Farmácia, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PontaGrossa, PR, Brazil

d Programa de Pós-graduacão em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual de PontaGrossa, PontaGrossa, PR, Brazil


In Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 26: 665–672 – DOI: 10.1016/j.bjp.2016.05.001 –


Baccharis belongs to the Asteraceae family and comprises a number of medicinal speciesBaccharis brevifolia DC., B. microdonta DC., B. pauciflosculosa DC., and B. trilobata A.S. Oliveira & Marchiori, which are popularly known in Brazil as “vassouras” (“broom”), are all found in Southern Brazil. The anatomical features of the leaf and stem were investigated by employing the usual light and scanning electron microtechniques, as a means of differentiating the taxa. The following anatomical characteristics can be considered to be diagnostic: the occurrence and type of stomata, midrib, stem and crystal shapes, and the presence of the petiole.

Stomata in Mandevilla coccinea (Apocynaceae)

FIGURES 1 – A-J: Mandevilla coccinea (Hook. et Arn.) Woodson: A. Reproductive apical branch; B, C. Adaxial epidermal cells, in surface view; D, E. Abaxial epidermal cells, in surface view;

Morpho-anatomical characters of the leaf and stem of Mandevilla coccinea (Hook. et Arn.) Woodson, Apocynaceae

by Duarte M. do R., Larrosa C. R. R. (2011)

Márcia do Rocio Duarte, Carina Rau Rivas Larrosa,

Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Departamento de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Paraná


In Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences vol. 47(1 ): 137-144 –

10865-Article Text-13739-1-10-20120512.pdf


Mandevilla coccinea (Hook. et Arn.) Woodson, Apocynaceae is a herb native to South America employed in folk medicine as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and to inhibit snake venom effects. This work was carried out to study the morpho-anatomical characters of the leaf and stem in order to advance knowledge on this medicinal plant and on pharmacognostic quality control. The plant material was fixed and prepared according to light and scanning electron microtechniques. Its leaves are simple, alternate and ovate-obovate. The epidermis is uniseriate and coated with a thick and striate cuticle. The stomata are paracytic and occur on both foliar surfaces. The dorsiventral-like mesophyll has a sub-epidermal parenchymatic layer containing phenolic substances and is traversed by minor collateral vascular bundles. The midrib is biconvex and the petiole is concave-convex, both presenting bicollateral vascular bundles in an open arc. The stem is circular in transverse section and the epidermis remains in incipient secondary growth. A sub-epidermal parenchymatic layer containing phenolic substances, a discontinuous sclerenchymatic sheath of non-lignified fibres and cylinders of external phloem, xylem and internal phloem occur. Numerous branched laticifers and idioblasts with phenolic substances are present in the leaf and stem.


Mandevilla coccinea (Hook. et Arn.) Woodson, Apocynaceae, é uma espécie herbácea nativa da América do Sul e empregada na medicina popular como analgésico, antiinflamatório e para inibir os efeitos de veneno de cobra. Este trabalho objetivou estudar os caracteres morfoanatômicos de folha e caule, a fim de fornecer conhecimento dessa espécie medicinal e para o controle de qualidade farmacognóstico. O material foi fixado e preparado de acordo com técnicas usuais de microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. As folhas são simples, alternas e ovado-obovadas. A epiderme é unisseriada e recoberta por uma cutícula espessada e estriada. Os estômatos são paracíticos e ocorrem em ambas as superfícies foliares. O mesofilo tende a ser dorsiventral, apresenta uma camada subepidérmica parenquimática contendo compostos fenólicos e é percorrido por feixes vasculares colaterais de pequeno porte. A nervura central é biconvexa e o pecíolo é côncavo-convexo, ambos apresentando feixes vasculares bicolaterais em arco aberto no parênquima fundamental. O caule tem secção transversal circular e, em estrutura secundária incipiente, a epiderme permanece. Na sequência, encontram-se camada subepidérmica parenquimática contendo compostos fenólicos, bainha esclerenquimática descontínua composta de fibras não lignificadas, além de cilindros de floema externo, xilema e floema interno. Numerosos laticíferos ramificados e idioblastos com substâncias fenólicas estão presentes na folha e no caule.