The Fabaceae family’s stomata characteristics

Foliar stomata characteristic of Fabaceae family in University of Sumatera Utara (USU) green space

Susilowati A., Ginting I. M., Kaban N. S., Rachmat H. H., Iswanto A. H., Sucipto T., (2022)

IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 977 012006 – DOI 10.1088/1755-1315/977/1/012006


The existence of green open space becomes important along with the decline in environmental quality. The University of Sumatera Utara (USU) campus, as one of the city’s green open spaces, is expected to be able to minimize negative impacts of increasing levels of pollution. For this reason, it is necessary to select tree species to maximize the function of green open spaces. The purpose of this research was to identify the Fabaceae family’s stomata characteristics, which included the type, length, thickness, and its density. To determine stomata characteristics, the epidermal layer of the leaves was perforated using nail polish. The results showed that all of observed trees had paracytic stomata with a random distribution pattern. The longest stomata was found in Erythrina crista that reached 20.15 μm in length, while the shortest stomata was found in Intsia bijuga and reached 12.36 μm in length. Tamarindus indica had the widest stomata, reaching 2.59 μm in width, while Pithecellobium dulce variegate have had smallest, at 7.74 μm in width. Peltophorum pterocarpum had the highest density at 718.68μm, while Leucaena leucocephala have had lowest density at 94/ μm2.

The variation in stomatal characteristics among five safflower cultivars

Stomatal characteristics of some safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars

Ergin N., Kaya M. F., Kaya M. D. (2021)

Nurgül ERGİN, Muhammed Fatih KAYA, Mehmet Demir KAYA,

Bilecik Şeyh Edebali University, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences, Department of Field Crops

Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops,



The density and distribution of stomata in mangrove species

Kerapatan dan Distribusi Stomata Daun Spesies Mangrove di Desa Negeri Lama Kota Ambon

Marantika M., Hiariej A., Sahertian D. E. (2021)

Mercyana Marantika, A. Hiariej, D. E. Sahertian,

Jurusan Biologi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam
Universitas Pattimura, Ambon 97233


Jurnal Ilmu Alam dan Lingkungan 12(1): 1 – 6 – P ISSN: 2086 – 4604 –


The importance of leaf structure in determining gas exchange

Variability of Leaf Morphology and Stomatal Conductance in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Cultivars

Tanaka Y., Fujii K., Shiraiwa T., (2010)

Crop Science 50(6): 2525-2532 –


Leaf epidermal structure is an important determinant of leaf gas exchange in soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and can be used as an indirect criterion for the selection of gas exchange traits. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic variation of leaf morphology among soybean cultivars and to examine how U.S. and Japanese cultivars differ with respect to gas exchange. Over 70 cultivars, including U.S. and Japanese soybean, were grown in the field over 2 yr to determine stomatal density, guard cell length, and potential stomatal conductance, along with other morphological leaf traits. Among cultivars, stomatal density ranged from 148 to 334 mm−2 Large variation was found in potential stomatal conductance (gp), which was closely associated with stomatal conductance in the field for representative genotypes (r = 0.89, P < 0.01). United States cultivars had larger gp values than Japanese and other Asian cultivars. This potential may give a physiological and morphological basis for the greater productivity observed in U.S. cultivars. On the other hand, PI 416937 showed lower stomatal conductance, which is consistent with the ability to conserve water. This study indicates the importance of leaf structure in determining gas exchange and suggests that these characteristics may be optimized to enhance dry matter productivity and water use.

Stomata in the Rubiaceae

Studies on the structural and developmental variations and distribution of stomata in the Rubiaceae

Bahadur B., Rajagopal T., Ramayya N. (1971)



J. Linn. Soc. Boi. 64(3): 295-310 –


The structure and ontogeny of the stomata has been studied in 26 species of Rubiaceae, in relation to their organographic distribution.

The stomata are mostly paracytic on the leaves, but vary on other parts, particularly on the floral disk, where they are exclusively anomocytic. The foliar stomata are mesogenous and paracytic, but may be either dolabrate or trilabrate in origin. The disk stomata are perigenous and are probably derived from the mesogenous paracytic ones by the loss of divisive potential of their meristemoid due to anthogenetic factors. They are regarded to be hydathodal in function.

If the dendroid habit is regarded as primitive, in the family, trilabrate stomata were quite possibly derived from dolabrate ones, which are mostly associated with the dendroid habit. Evidence from stomatal ontogeny is shown to be taxonomically important in the Rubiaceae.

Stomata of dicots in Pakistan

Taxonomic diversity of stomata in dicot flora of a district tank (NWFP) in Pakistan

Ahmad K., Khan M. A., Ahmad M., Zafar M., Arshad M., Ahmad F. (2009)

Khalid Ahmad1, Mir Ajab Khan1, Mushtaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Zafar1, Muhammad Arshad2, Farooq Ahmad1,

1 Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-I-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan.
2 Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan.


African Journal of Biotechnology 8(6): 1052-1055 – ISSN 1684–5315 –


A total of 36 dicot species distributed in 34 genera and 20 families were investigated for stomatal diversity.

Seven types of stomata were found in which amphianisocytic was the dominant one found in 12 species while staurocytic and diacytic were found in 7 and 6 species respectively. In 7 species two and in one species three different types of stomata were found.

Stomata in the tribe Sorbarieae (Spiraeoideae: Rosaceae)

Fig. 1. SEM micrographs of leaf surfaces of tribe Sorbarieae and related genera. A−B. Adenostoma fasciculatum var. obtusifolium. A. Abaxial
surface showing isometric epidermal cells with cyclocytic stomata. B. Adaxial surface showing straight and curved isometric epidermal cells
with cyclocytic stomata. C. Chamaebatiaria millefolium. Adaxial surface showing irregular epidermal cells with anomocytic stomata. D−E.
Gillenia trifoliata. D. Adaxial surface showing isometric epidermal cells. E. Abaxial surface showing irregular epidermal cells with
anomocytic stomata. F. Lyonothamnus floribundus ssp. aspleniifolius. Abaxial surface showing distribution of long twisted trichomes and
stomata. G−H. Sorbaria arborea var. arborea. G. Abaxial surface showing isometric sinuate epidermal cells with actino/anomocytic stomata.
H. Stoma with extended wings of striae. I. S. grandiflora. Abaxial surface showing sub-isometric epidermal cells with anomocytic stomata. J.
S. kirilowii. Adaxial surface showing straight and curved isometric epidermal cells. K. S. sorbifolia var. sorbifolia. Stomata with extended
wings of striae. L. S. sorbifolia var. stellipila (1). Abaxial surface showing sinuate anticlinal walls. M. S. sorbifolia f. incerta. Abaxial surface
showing isometric epidermal cells with actinocytic stomata. N. S. tomentosa var. tomentosa. Abaxial surface showing irregular epidermal cells
with anomocytic stomata having extended wings of striae. O. Spiraeanthus schrenkianus. Abaxial surface showing sub-isometric epidermal
cells with cyclocytic stomata and short non-glandular trichome.

Taxonomic significance of the leaf micromorphology in the tribe Sorbarieae (Spiraeoideae: Rosaceae)

Song J.-H., Hong S.-P. (2016)

Jun-Ho Song, Suk-Pyo Hong,

Laboratory of Plant Systematics, Department of Biology, Kyung Hee University, 26, Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 02447, Korea


Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 46(2): 199−212 –

Stomata in Strychnos

Comparative foliar epidermal micromorphology of Southern African Strychnos L. (Loganiaceae): Taxonomic, ecological and cytological considerations

Adebowale A., Naidoo Y., Lamb J., Nicholas A. (2014)

Adekunle AdebowaleYougasphree NaidooJennifer LambAshley Nicholas,


Plant Systematics and Evolution 300: 127–138 – DOI:10.1007/s00606-013-0865-z



The micromorphology of the leaf epidermis of 11 species across four sections of southern African Strychnos was investigated using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In addition to this, preliminary genome size was assessed with flow cytometry.

Qualitative and quantitative results are presented for stomata, trichome and cuticular wax features with an emphasis on the abaxial epidermal surface. A correlated combination of these microscopic features was able to distinguish successfully among the 11 species of Strychnos found in the subcontinent. However, micromorphological evidence does not support the current circumscription of the sections.

The often-confused S. gerrardii and S. madagascariensis are distinguishable on leaf micromorphological grounds. Stomata and trichome features show remarkable patterns that largely correlate with the ecological distribution of Strychnos species as either forest or savanna inhabitants.

The significant variability in stomatal length across species is hypothesized to be indicative of possible existence of variable ploidy levels within the genus in southern African. However, preliminary genome size analyses with flow cytometry appear to be inconclusive.

Stomata in Buddleja

Leaf epidermal characteristics of Asiatic Buddleja L. under scanning electron microscope: insights into chromosomal and taxonomic significance

Chen G., Sun W., Sun H. (2010)

Gao Chena, Weibang Suna, Hang Sunb,

a Kunming Botanical Garden, Kunming Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650204, Yunnan, China

b Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Biogeography, Kunming Institute of Botany, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650204, Yunnan, China


Flora 205(11): 777-785 –


The leaf epidermis of all 23 species from Asian Buddleja was investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Characteristics of trichome type, stomatal shape, cuticular membrane on adaxial and abaxial epidermis, inner margin of outer stomatal ledge and ornamentation of outer stomatal ledge are presented in this study.

Among the Buddleja species, some distinct epidermal patterns were observed. These can be used to characterize and identify different sections among the Asian Buddleja species, viz. AlternifoliaeCurviflorae and Rectiflorae. In general, stomatal length of Buddleja increases with ploidy level. This character can be used to distinguish diploids from polyploids without preparation of caryograms.

Based on this correlation Buddleja microstachyaB. subcapitata and B. bhutanica are characterized to be diploids, as concluded from their stomatal dimensions. Leaf epidermis characters can also be used to differentiate species pairs that are easily confused with each other, viz., B. asiatica and B. bhutanicaB. albiflora and B. niveaB. candida and B. fallowianaB. delavayi and B. forrestiiB. japonica and B. lindleyanaB. officinalis and B. paniculata.

Stomata in Rosa from China

Micromorphological characteristics of leaf epidemis and systematic significance of Rosa L. from China

Zeng N., Zhang J.-R., Chang Z.-Y. (2017)

ZENG Ni, ZHANG Jian-Ru, CHANG Zhao-Yang,

College of Life Sciences, Northwest A &2.F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China


Guihaia 37(2): 169-185 –

The micromorphological characteristics of leaf epidermis of 30 Rosa L. species from China was observed by using light microscope and scanning electron microscope(SEM). Both the adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells were polygonal or irregular in shape with anticlinal walls undulate or straight and arched. The size of leaf epidermal cells has greater interspecific difference in general. The upper epidermal cells of the genus were almost all polygonal and the upper epidermal cells were slightly larger than the lower epidermal cells. Periclinal walls of most epidermal cells of the genus were sunken and some fraction of epidermal cells were bulging under the scanning electron microscope.

All 29 plants of the subgen. Rosa L. were hypostomatic except for amphistomatic R. berberifolia belonging to subgen. Hulthemia. Most stomatal types were anomocytic with some others anomotetracytic or paratetracytic as well as stomatal shape elliptic, widely elliptic or oblong elliptic. Inner margin of outer stomatal rim were nearly smooth or sinuolate, or with sinuous and sinuate, besides, ornamentation of outer stomatal rim were smooth or nearly smooth or with scaly waxy layer with most stomata apparatus “T” type thickening of guard cells poles.

Two kinds of trichomes were distinguished in this study. They were pubescence or glandular in Rosa L., and most species had long pubescence or short pubescence, as well a small number of plants were glabrous. Bases of most single pubescences had no specialization and were surrounded by ordinary epidermal cells. Only a very small group of species were surrounded by specialized radial cells. The cuticular wax ornamentation were nearly smooth, papillose or granulate, or with layer of small processes and flake-like waxy layer. All the observed species of the subgen. Rosa L. were unilaminar outer stomatal rim except for R. berberifolia belonging to subgen. Hulthemia and that R. berberifolia also had trichomes in just the upper epidermis. So R. berberifolia belonged to subgen. Hulthemia had a special position in evolution, which was also explained by the research results of this paper. There were no clear regularity in the micro morphological characteristics of the leaf epidermis of Rosa L. in each group within the genus, but it can provide the basis for systematic taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships between species, and leaf epidermis characters can be used to differentiate similar species that were easily confused with each other. The significance of these epidermal features was discussed.