Stomata in Anagallis (Primulaceae)



Epidermal Structure and Ontogeny of Stomata in Leaves of Anagallis arvensis L.

by Verma B. K. (1972)

University of Allahabad, India


in Annals of Botany 36(147): 857-860 –


Epidermal structure and development of stomata in leaves of Anagallis arvensis has been described. The stomatal ontogeny is of the mesoperigenous type.

The efficacy of leaf anatomical characters , e.g. stomata, in species and genus segregation



Leaf Anatomy of Five Neotropical Genera of Primulaceae

by Nunes de Luna B., De Fátima Freitas M., Baas P., De Toni K. L. G., Barros C. ( 2017)

Bruna Nunes de Luna, Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Maria De Fátima FreitasInstituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Pieter Baas, Leiden, The Netherlands
K. L. G. De Toni, Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Claudia Barros, Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


in International Journal of Plant Sciences 178(5) – DOI: 10.1086/691213 –

Premise of research:
This study tackles the general question of whether the assessment of leaf anatomical characters has potential utility in characterizing clades and taxa at various levels of the taxonomic hierarchy of the Primulaceae.
Fully expanded field-collected leaves of 33 species from five genera were sampled. The material was subjected to anatomical procedures by LM, SEM, confocal microscopy, and epifluorescence microscopy. Principal component analyses were performed to test the validity of leaf anatomical features as a method of separating the species and genera. In addition, to understand character evolution, some leaf anatomical characters were plotted on a DNA phylogeny.
Pivotal results:
The basic leaf anatomical structure was shared by all species: dorsiventral mesophyll, singlelayered epidermis, and mesophyll cells containing druses. In contrast, other attributes, such as trichome types, stomata, and cuticular ornamentation, display diversity, which is helpful in defining groups within the Neotropical Primulaceae. In addition, several apomorphies for genera and subfamilies could be identified. The subfamily Myrsinoideae can be characterized by its secretory cavities and ducts. The only representative of the Theophrastoideae we studied stood out by its extraxylary fiber bundles. Cybianthus can be segregated from other genera by its paracytic stomata, Myrsine by the presence of an additional bundle above the vascular system in the midrib, Stylogyne and Ardisia by the weakly dorsiventral mesophyll, and Jacquinia by the presence of bundles of extraxylary fibers in the mesophyll and marginal sclerenchyma.
On the basis of multivariate analysis, it was possible to validate the efficacy of leaf anatomical characters in species and genus segregation, and on the basis of these results, it is further possible to use such data as the basis for future taxonomic delimitation.

Stomata in Calandrinia and Montiopsis (Portulacaceae)



Leaf Morphology of Calandrinia and Montiopsis (Portulacaceae)

by Hersckovitz M. A. (1993)

Mark A. Hershkovitz

Smithsonian Institution, Washington D. C., USA


in Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 80(2): 366-396 –


Calandrinia sect. Calandrinia, C. sect. Monocosmia, and some species of C. sect. Acaules share identical leaf blade and petiolar morphology, fimbrial veins, predominantly brachytetracytic and staurocytic stomata surrounded by a cycle of subsidiary-like cells, and unicellular ribbed trichomes or papillar trichomes.
Other species of C. sect. Acaules have irregularly brochidodromous venation without a fimbrial vein, predominantly brachyparacytic stomata, and/or no trichomes; venation and stomatal morphology in these species is similar to that found in Montiopsis.
Leaves of Montiopsis lack petioles, have glandular or eglandular, uniseriate- and/or multiseriate-multicellular trichomes (although some examined specimens of M. subg. Dianthoideae appear to be glabrous), and generally have brachyparacytic stomata (although some examined specimens of subgenus Dianthoideae have a small proportion of brachytetracytic/staurocytic stomata with an outer cycle of cells).
Leaves of M. subg. Montiopsis also have barbellate trichomes apparently composed of elongate hair cells, and have predominantly brachyparacytic or anomocytic stomata.
Phylogenetic analysis of foliar characters of Portulacaceae:
(1) supports a close relationship between C. sects. Calandrinia and Monocosmia and species of C. sect. Acaules;
(2) indicates that C. sect. Acaules may be paraphyletic with respect to the preceding taxa;
(3) provides weak evidence contradicted by nonfoliar evidence that Claytonia and Montia may be nested within Calandrinia;
(4) provides weak evidence linking Montiopsis with Calandrinia; and (5) indicates that foliar characters may not be more homoplasious than nonfoliar.
Phylogenetically analyzed systematic accounts of foliar morphology, such as that presented here, may provide a basis for advancing theories on the relationship between leaf form, function, and ontogeny.

Stomata in Coccoloba (Polygonaceae)



The diversity of micromorphological features in the genus Coccoloba (Polygonaceae)

by Brandbyge J. (1990)


in Nordic Journ. of Botany 10!1): 25-44 –


Coccoloba P. Browne ex is a large and taxonomically complex genus of woody neotropical Polygonaceae.

In this study, which includes 70 taxa, leaf and perianth epiderms and pollen surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Stomata, primary sculpture, epicuticular wax deposits, and multicellular glandular hairs of leaf blades together with secondary sculpture of perianth epiderms constitute taxonomically important micromorphological characters.

Pollen morphology of the examined species is relatively uniform. Types based on surface ornamentation vary continuously from finely punctate‐striate to deeply punctate‐striate or microreticulate.

Two species, C. acapulcensis and C. cordata, differ markedly from the rest of the investigated species by having spinulose ektexines. The diagnostic‐descriptive value of the characters studied is more pronounced than the taxonomic‐phylogenetic value. The disjunct distributions of two closely related species pairs C. acapulcencis/C. cordata and C. brasiliensis/C. schomburgkii are discussed.

Stomata in Polygonum (Polygonaceae)



Foliar anatomy of Polygonum (Polygonaceae): Survey of epidermal and selected internal structures

by Lersten N. R., Curtis J. D. (1992)

  1. Department of Botany, Iowa State University, Ames, USA
  2. Department of Biology, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, USA


in Pl Syst Evol (182: 71-106 –


Several anatomical characters in leaves were described, and their distribution determined, for 153 species of Polygonum, mostly from herbarium specimens. Structures surveyed were epidermal (glandular and nonglandular trichomes, nodules, specialized parenchyma, stomatal apparatus) and internal (cavities, crystals, laticifer-like cells, nodules, subepidermal fibers).

Cleared leaves were supplemented by resin-embedded sections and SEM preparations of selected species. No feature defines any taxonomic section, but some features occur only within one section. Laticifer-like cells, epidermal and internal nodules, resin cups, and unique epidermal and subepidermal cavities seem to be unknown elsewhere; other features (invaginated epidermal cells; enlarged crystal cells confined to paraveinal layer) are rare among angiosperms.

Diversity of stomata in dicot flora

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Taxonomic diversity of stomata in dicot flora of a district tank (N.W.F.P.) in Pakistan

by Ahmad K., Khan M. A., Ahmad M., Zafar M. Arshad M., Ahmad F. (2009)

Khalid Ahmad 1, Mir Ajab Khan 1, Mushtaq Ahmad 1, Muhammad Zafar 1*, Muhammad Arshad 2 and Farooq Ahmad 1
1 Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-I-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan.
2 Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

in African Journal of Biotechnology 8(6: 052-1055 – ISSN 1684–5315 © 2009 –

A total of 36 dicot species distributed in 34 genera and 20 families were investigated for stomatal diversity.
Seven types of stomata were found in which amphianisocytic was the dominant one found in 12 species while staurocytic and diacytic were found in 7 and 6 species respectively. In 7 species two and in one species three different types of stomata were found.


Stomata in Plantago from Central Argentina



Leaf anatomy of the species of Plantago (Plantaginaceae) from Central Argentina

by Filippa E., Barboza G. E., Lujan M. C., Espinar L. A. (1999)

Eva M. FilippaNational Scientific and Technical Research Council (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

Gloria Estela Barboza, National University of Cordoba, Argentina
María Claudia Luján, National University of Cordoba, Argentina

L. Ariza Espinar, National University of Cordoba, Argentina 


in Darwiniana 37(1): 1-13 –


A comparative study of the leaf anatomy of 10 species of Plantago L. (Plantaginaceae) from Central Argentina was carried out.

The analysis included the study of the foliar epidermis, cuticle, stomata and trichomes; a classification of eglandular and glandular trichomes was stablished and original data of the mesophyll structure in 8 species were given as well.

Besides, a key based exclusively on leaf features was provided. The results were discussed and evaluated from a taxonomical point of view.