Rubiaceous type of stomata on both sides of the leaf in Basella

Pharmacognostical Standardization of UpodikaBasella alba L.: An Important Ayurvedic Antidiabetic Plant

Shantha T. R., Patchaimal P., Reddy M. P., Kumar R. K., Tewari D., Bharti V., Venkateshwarlu G., Mangal A. K., Padhi M. M., Dhiman K. S. (2022)

TR Shantha1P Patchaimal1M Prathapa Reddy1R Kishore Kumar1Devesh Tewari2Vandana Bharti2G Venkateshwarlu1AK Mangal2MM Padhi2KS Dhiman2,

1 From the Regional Ayurveda Research Institute for Metabolic Disorders, Drug Standardization Research Unit, Jayanagar, Bengaluru, India

2 Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, Ministry of AYUSH, Government of , New Delhi, India


Ancient Sci Life36: 35-41 –;year=2016;volume=36;issue=1;spage=35;epage=41;aulast=Shantha



To establish the pharmacognostic standards for the correct identification and standardization of an important Antidiabetic plant described in Ayurveda. 

Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out on the leaf and stem of Basella alba L. with the help of the macro-morphological, microscopic, physicochemical and qualitative phytochemical studies. 

Results: Several specific characters were identified viz. clustered calcium oxalate crystals in the cortex region, absence of trichomes, succulent, thick, mucilaginous, fibrous stem. Rubiaceous type of stomata on both sides of the leaf. Quantitative microscopy along with physicochemical and qualitative phytochemical analysis were also established. 

Conclusion: The pharmacognostic standards could serve as the reference for the proper identification of the Basella alba L. which is an important anti-diabetic plant described in Ayurveda.

Stomata on the nectary of Pedicularis

Floral nectary, nectar production dynamics, and floral reproductive isolation among closely related species of Pedicularis

Liu Y.-N., Li Y., Yang F.-S., Wang X.-Q. (2016)

Ya-Nan Liu 1 2Yan Li 3Fu-Sheng Yang 1Xiao-Quan Wang 1,

  • 1 State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100093, China.
  • 2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100039, China.
  • 3 Institute of Alpine Economic Plant, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lijiang, 674100, China.


J Integr Plant Biol 58(2):178-187 – doi: 10.1111/jipb.12374 – Epub 2015 Sep 30 –


Floral nectar is thought to be one of the most important rewards that attract pollinators in Pedicularis; however, few studies have examined variation of nectary structure and/or nectar secretion in the genus, particularly among closely related species.

Here we investigated nectary morphology, nectar quality, and nectar production dynamics in flowers of Pedicularis section Cyathophora. We found a conical floral nectary at the base of the ovary in species of the rex-thamnophila clade. Stomata were found on the surface of the nectary, and copious starch grains were detected in the nectary tissues.

In contrast, a semi-annular nectary was found in flowers of the species of the superba clade. Only a few starch grains were observed in tissues of the semi-annular nectary, and the nectar sugar concentration in these flowers was much lower than that in the flowers of the rex-thamnophila clade.

Our results indicate that the floral nectary has experienced considerable morphological, structural, and functional differentiation among closely related species of Pedicularis. This could have affected nectar production, leading to a shift of the pollination mode.

Our results also imply that variation of the nectary morphology and nectar production may have played an important role in the speciation of sect. Cyathophora.

Both selection for functional coordination (stomata and Rubisco kinetics) and shared development pathways (stomatal density and leaf area) likely shape patterns of trait integration between species

Stomatal anatomy coordinates leaf size with Rubisco kinetics in the Balearic Limonium

Conesa M. À., Muir C. D., Molins A., Galmés J. (2020)

Miquel À. ConesaChristopher D. MuirArantzazu MolinsJeroni Galmés,


AoB PLANTS 12(1): plz050 –


Trait integration arises through both selection on functional coordination and shared developmental pathways. Different anatomical components must both work well and develop together to generate individuals with the appropriate physiology to survive and reproduce in their environment.

In this study, we used a common garden experiment and Bayesian multilevel models to test whether stomatal anatomy coordinates leaf gas exchange, Rubisco kinetics and leaf size across 10 closely related species of Limonium from the Balearic Islands.

The results indicate that the anatomical determinants of maximum stomatal conductance, stomatal density and size, were functionally coordinated with Rubisco kinetics—species whose stomatal anatomy was correlated with low stomatal conductance have evolved Rubisco enzymes better adapted to low operational chloroplastic CO2 concentrations. Lower stomatal density was associated with greater leaf size, which can be explained by a greater proportion of pavement cells in large-leaved species. These results suggest that both selection for functional coordination (stomata and Rubisco kinetics) and shared development pathways (stomatal density and leaf area) likely shape patterns of trait integration between species.

The genus Limonium is adapted to stressful environments in the Mediterranean Basin. There are important differences among species in the biochemical properties of the key enzyme fixing CO2, Rubisco and also in leaf size. This study demonstrates that variation in both Rubisco and leaf size across species is coordinated through stomatal traits. Moreover, trait relationships seen within Limonium are in some cases opposite to previous descriptions of very diverse species worldwide, which denotes that trait coordination within particular species groups may be variable.

Diacytic stomata in Satureja (Lamiaceae)

Research into microscopic structure and essential oils of endemic medicinal plant species Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. (Lamiaceae)

Redžić S., Tuka M., Pajević A. (2008)

Sulejman Redžić, Lab. of Natural Products, Faculty of Science, University of Sarajevo Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sarajevo

  • Mijat Tuka, Private Pharmacy “Kiseljak”
  • Anisa Pajević, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sarajevo


Bosn J of Basic Med Sci [Internet] 6(2): 25-31 –


In this study we looked into the cells and histological organization of leaves (Saturejae folium) as well as a phyto-chemical composition of overground parts (Saturejae herba) of endemic species Satureja subspicata Bartl. ex Vis. (Lamiaceae) collected during year 2003 on south slopes of mountain Velez in Herzegovina. Microscopic organization was analyzed in wet slides using light microscope. Estimation of stomata index was done according to Ph. Yug. IV. Chemical composition of overground material extracts was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) using thymol as a reference.

In our research we found the following: Leaf structure of the analyzed species Satureja subspicata points at numerous specificities in anatomical and histological sense. In histological sense, leaf is of ventral type, with differentiated upper and lower epidermis and palisade and spongy tissue in between. Stoma index assigned according to Ph. Yug. IV leads to a conclusion that it is the case of diastitic stomata, which is common feature of most species from Lamiaceae family. Comparative qualitative analysis of essential oils in species Satureja subspicata showed similarities with other species from Lamiaceae family such as Thymus L. (thymol). In fact, we found more common substances that are part of the species Satureja montana L. extract, but in different concentrations.

Stomata in Melastomaceae


Juniza M., Chatri M. (2022)

Mayora Juniza, Moralita Chatri,

Prosiding Seminar Nasional Biologi 1(2): 1585–1589 –


Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tipe stomata berdasarkan susunan sel tetangga yang mengelilingi sel penutup, dan mengetahui tipe stomata berdasarkan penyebaran stomata pada daun dari beberapa spesies pada famili melastomaceae dengan berbagai genus. Spesies yang diamati adalah Clidemia hirta L., Melastoma malabathricum L., Tiobuchina langsdorffiana. Pengamatan Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan Mikroskop cahaya Zeiss Primo Star dengan perbesaran 10×40. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa tipe stomata Clidemia hirta L., Melastoma malabathricum L., Tiobuchina langsdorffiana berdasarkan jumlah dan susunan sel tetangga adalah anomositik, sedangkan tipe stomata berdasarkan penyebaran stomata pada daun adalah abaksial.

The guard cells of Helianthus annuus contain elements of endoplasmic reticulum and large numbers of mitochondria and dictyosomes

The fine structure of the guard cells of Helianthus annuus

Sanchez S. M. (1977)

Stephen M. Sanchez,


Amer. J. Bot. 64(7): 814-824 –


The guard cells of Helianthus annuus contain elements of endoplasmic reticulum and large numbers of mitochondria and dictyosomes. Each guard cell possesses a complex system of small to large vacuoles which contain small, membrane-bound vesicles; the vacuole may actually be one highly invaginated and dissected vacuole extending throughout the cell. A highly developed grana fretwork within the plastids implies full photosynthetic capability and the capability of producing the osmoticulum required for turgor change. No plasmodesmata occur between the sister guard cells or between the guard and epidermal cells. It is postulated that there is a close relationship between plastid development and the presence or absence of plasmodesmata. No microbodies were positively identified in any of the guard cells. Microtubules appear to lie in two planes, thereby giving support to the “two system” observation for microtubules in the guard cells of Pisum sativum.

Guard cell plastids had a much poorer developed grana system with fibril inclusions apparent only during the developmental stages


Freeman T. P. (1973)

Thomas P. Freeman,


American Journal of Botany 60(1): 86-91 –


Developmental studies of Opuntia basilaris Engelm. & Bigel. leaves revealed the presence of three morphologically distinct types of plastids. All epidermal cells examined contained chloroplasts. After 13 days of growth in the dark the plastids of epidermal and mesophyll cells were characterized by the presence of a prolamellar body and fibril inclusions. Epidermal plastids which developed under light conditions contained large stromacentres and a limited grana-fret membrane system. Guard cell plastids developed under similar conditions had a much poorer developed grana system with fibril inclusions apparent only during the developmental stages. At maturity these plastids appeared swollen or dilated. Mesophyll plastids had fibril inclusions during all stages of development and at maturity contained a very extensive grana-fret membrane system. Microbodies were found in association with the mesophyll plastids. Starch accumulation was common in subsidiary cell and guard cell plastids.

Perigenous stomata generally exceed the size of mesoperigenous and mesogenous ones


Galatis B., Mitrakos K. (1980)


American Journal of Botany 67(8): 1243-1261 –


Structural differentiation of the guard cells of Vigna sinensis results from the integration of the following interrelated processes: a) intense activity of ribosomes, dictyosomes, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes and mitochondria and patterned organization of microtubules; b) unequal thickening and ordered micellation of their walls and opening of the stomatal pore; and c) the divergent differentiation of the plastids. In differentiating guard cells, microtubules appear anticlinally oriented and more or less evenly distributed along the unthickened part of the dorsal wall and in the middle part of the ventral wall where thickening of the future pore occurs. In periclinal walls, microtubules fan away from the margins of the increasing thickening of the ventral wall and, later, from the rims of the stomatal pore towards the dorsal walls, parallel to the depositing radial microfibrils. Microtubules may be the cytoplasmic elements underlying guard-cell morphogenesis. Although cell-plate organization in guard-cell mother cells does not seem to differ from that of other protodermal cells, the middle lamella of the ventral wall becomes electron-translucent. The stomatal pore develops schizogenously from the internal and/or external ends of the ventral wall and proceeds inwards, remaining incomplete in most of the stomata of plants grown for 30 days in darkness and in some malformed ones which were developed after a prolonged action of colchicine. The guard cell, when approaching maturity, loses its organelle complexity and plasmodesmata, but it keeps a significant portion of its cytoplasm and organelles. Perigenous stomata generally exceed the size of mesoperigenous and mesogenous ones, develop large vacuoles and appear able to induce oriented divisions in their vicinity.

Differences in stomatal size, shape, and number per unit leaf surface area

Stomatal analysis of native and invasive blackberries

Palmer A. (2013)

B.Sc. thesis, University of Western Oregon, Monmouth, Oregon, USA –

Invasive plants often have larger resource consumption rates than do their native counterparts, potentially enhancing their ability to survive in a new environment. Differences in pore (stomatal) size, shape, and number per unit leaf surface area have not been analyzed. To test these differences, Rubus armeniacus (invasive blackberry) and Rubus ursinus (native blackberry) were grown in a greenhouse. Fully hydrated leaves were collected and surface prints were made and analyzed under a light microscope. Rubus …

The stomatal pattern on stems may have some potential as a taxonomic character in Lamiaceae

Raised stomatal clusters on Coleus (Lamiaceae) stems

Turner G. W., Lersten N. R. (1983)

Glenn W. TurnerNels R. Lersten,


American Journal of Botany 70(7): –


Stomata on stem internodes of Coleus blumei occur only in clusters on hollow epidermal bulges. We illustrate them here with light and scanning electron microsocpy. Some stomatal clusters are sites for lenticel formation on older internodes.

Three Plectranthus species were also examined; two had discrete stomatal clusters while the third showed a more scattered arrangement of stomata, indicating that the stomatal pattern on stems may have some potential as a taxonomic character in Lamiaceae.