Stomata in some euphorbiaceous species

Fig. 9. Characteristics of adaxial foliar epidermal anatomy of Euphorbia: A- Glandular trichome of E. hirta (20x), B- Non- glandular
trichomes of E. pulcherrima (10x), C- Stomata and epidermal cells of E. royleana (40x), D- Epidermal cell shape and stomata of E.
granulata (40x), E- Epidermal cell shape of E. splendens (10x), F- Epidermal cell shape and stomata of E. prostrata (40x), G- Stomata
of E. hamiltonii (40x), H- stomata and epidermal cells of E. peplus (40x).

Systematic Significance of Anatomical Characterization in Some Euphorbiaceous Species

by Zahra N. B., Ahmad M., Shinwari Z. K., Zafar M., Sultana S. (2014)

NADIA BATOO ZAHRA, MUSHTAQ AHMAD, ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI, MUHAMMAD ZAFAR, SHAZIA SULTANA,

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad Pakistan

Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad Pakistan

In Pak. J. Bot. 46(5): 1653-1661 – ISSN 0556-3321

https://www.pakbs.org/pjbot/PDFs/46(5)/14.pdf

Fig. 10. Characteristics of abaxial foliar epidermal anatomy of Euphorbia: A- Glandular trichome of E. hirta (20x), B- Non- glandular
trichomes of E. pulcherrima (20x), C- Stomata and epidermal cells of E. royleana (20x), D- Epidermal cell shape and stomata of E.
granulata (40x), E- Epidermal cell shape and stomata of E. splendens (20x), F- Epidermal cell shape, stomata and non- glandular
trichome of E. prostrata (20x), G- Epidermal cells of E. hamiltonii (20x), H- Epidermal cells of E. peplus (40x).

Abstract

The study was aimed to explore the systematic potential of anatomical characters for identification and delimitation among Euphorbia species. Eight species of leafy spurges of genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) were evaluated for variations in micro morphological characters of foliar epidermal anatomy.

While anatomical observations are of importance in the assessments and appraisals, use of these characters as an effective tool in interpreting phyletic evaluations and systematic delineations has its limitations too. The epidermal cell wall in majority of species was wavy to undulate on both adaxial and abaxial surfaces.

The observations made in this study indicate that there is not a single type of stomata which appears as characteristic of the genus Euphorbia. Also their distribution whether epistomatic or hypostomatic is not a genus characteristic.

The trichomes found were simple, unicellular or multicellular, uniseriate. Present investigation revealed the utility of both qualitative and quantitative characters in systematic studies; also the potential influence in the delimitation of species cannot be ignored.

Our results show that the micro-morphology of anatomical characters play an important role in definition of taxa at species and sectional levels.

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Stomata in Gynocardia odorata R.Br. (Achariaceae)

Studies on Foliar Architecture and Micromorphology of Gynocardia odorata R.Br. (Achariaceae): a Well-Known Medicinal Plant of Assam, India

by Kalita D., Devi N., Kalita M. C. (2017)

Dipjyoti Kalita, Nilakshee Devi, Mohan Ch. Kalita,

Department of Botany, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India
Department of Biotechnology, Gauhati University, Guwahati-781014, Assam, India

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In Pleione 11(2): 187-194 – DOI: 10.26679/Pleione.11.2.2017.187-194 –

http://pleione.ehsst.org/journals/Pleione112/002%20Foliar%20Micromorphology%20of%20Gynocardia%20odorata.pdf

Abstract

Gynocardia odorata R.Br. (Achariaceae) is a crooked, small to medium East Indian evergreen tree. The present investigation elucidated its foliar architecture and micro-morphological characteristics .

Qualitative and quantitative characters of veins, vein order, areolation; epidermal cell, cell wall nature, length, breadth and number; stomatal distribution, type, frequency and index were taken into consideration for enhanced taxonomic comprehension.

Present study is also an attempt to evaluate foliar epidermal features as aid to identification and delimitation of the genus Gynocardia R.Br.

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Stomata:

Leaves hypostomatic, stomata were non-uniformly distributed in intercoastal areas but occasionally a few stomata may also present in the coastal areas. The type of stomata was diacytic, and they were widely separated from each other by epidermal cells. The average size of the stomata was 39.66 – 41.03 μm × 49.73 – 50.58 μm. Size of stomatal aperture on the lower surface was ± 0.72 µm x 0.25 µm. The L/B ratio of stomata and stomatal aperture were 0.91 and 2.88 respectively. The stomatal frequency ranged from 19.54 to 36.56 per sq mm whereas the stomatal index on the lower surface ranged from 186.42 to 257.70 per sq mm [Table 5].


Stomata in some Nelsonioideae (Acanthaceae)

Cuticular studies in some Nelsonioideae (Acanthaceae)

by Ahmad K. J. (2008)

Khwaja J. Ahmad

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In Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 68(1): 73–80 –https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1974.tb01748.x

https://academic.oup.com/botlinnean/article-abstract/68/1/73/2725907?redirectedFrom=fulltext

Abstract

The foliar epidermis and cuticle of Staurogyne longifolia (Nees) Kuntze, Elytraria acaulis (L.f.) Lindau var. acaulis, E. acaulis var. lyrata (Nees) Bremek. and Nelsonia campestris R.Br, have been investigated, revealing broad similarities with those of the rest of the Acanthaceae; the presence of diacytic stomata in the Nelsonioideae is evidence of its affinity with the Acanthaceae in general-, while the presence of panduriform glandular hairs and the absence of the cystoliths in Nelsonioideae indicate its particular affinity with the Thunbergioideae.

Substantial evidence is provided to support the retention of Nelsonioideae as a subfamily of the Acanthaceae, rather than its transfer to the Scrophulariaceae.

Stomata in Dichapetalum

Fig. 2: Abaxial side of a Dichapetalum cymosum leaf showing the epidermis with stomata, spongiform parenchyma and a secondary vein.  

Microscopic morphology of Dichapetalum cymosum (Hook.) Engl. as an aid in the identification of leaf fragments from the digestive tract of poisoned animals

by van der Merwe D., du Plesis L. (2006)

In Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 77(4):197-201 – DOI: 10.4102/jsava.v77i4.377 –

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6371509_Microscopic_morphology_of_Dichapetalum_cymosum_Hook_Engl_as_an_aid_in_the_identification_of_leaf_fragments_from_the_digestive_tract_of_poisoned_animals

Fig. 1: Stomatal structure in the abaxial epidermis of a Dichapetalum cymosum leaf. 

Abstract

Dichapetalum cymosum (Hook.) Engl. (Poison leaf; gifblaar) is a major cause of acute livestock plant poisoning in southern Africa.

Microscopic identification of leaf fragments found in the digestive tract of poisoned animals can assist in the diagnosis of poisoning when D. cymosum poisoning is suspected.

The microscopic morphology of D. cymosum leaves are described using standard staining and microscopy methods for histopathology samples at many regional diagnostic laboratories.

Morphological descriptions included structures in the epidermis and mesophyll that were discernible using H & E staining. The microscopic morphology of D. cymosum was used to differentiate between leaf fragments of D. cymosum and other species from the same habitat with macroscopic features that resemble those of D. cymosum, including Euclea crispa, Combretum zeyheri, Burkea afrikana and Lannea discolor.

Tomato stoma

Stoma in a tomato leaf shown via colorized scanning electron microscope image

Stoma

Wikipedia (x)

In Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stoma

In botany, a stoma (plural “stomata”), also called a stomate (plural “stomates”)[1] (from Greek στόμα, “mouth”),[2] is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange. The pore is bordered by a pair of specialized parenchyma cells known as guard cells that are responsible for regulating the size of the stomatal opening.

The term is usually used collectively to refer to the entire stomatal complex, consisting of the paired guard cells and the pore itself, which is referred to as the stomatal aperture.[3] Air enters the plant through these openings by gaseous diffusion, and contains carbon dioxide and oxygen, which are used in photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. Oxygen produced as a by-product of photosynthesis diffuses out to the atmosphere through these same openings. Also, water vapor diffuses through the stomata into the atmosphere in a process called transpiration.

Stomata are present in the sporophyte generation of all land plant groups except liverworts. In vascular plants the number, size and distribution of stomata varies widely. Dicotyledons usually have more stomata on the lower surface of the leaves than the upper surface. Monocotyledons such as onionoat and maize may have about the same number of stomata on both leaf surfaces.[4]:5 In plants with floating leaves, stomata may be found only on the upper epidermis and submerged leaves may lack stomata entirely. Most tree species have stomata only on the lower leaf surface.[5]Leaves with stomata on both the upper and lower leaf are called amphistomatous leaves; leaves with stomata only on the lower surface are hypostomatous, and leaves with stomata only on the upper surface are epistomatous or hyperstomatous.[5] Size varies across species, with end-to-end lengths ranging from 10 to 80 µm and width ranging from a few to 50 µm.[6]

Stomatal types in Gustavia

Two stomatal types in Gustavia

by Gracie C. A. (1987) – –

http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/glossary/glossary_details.php?irn=3212

Title: Two stomatal types in Gustavia. Drawing by C. A. Gracie.
Creator: C. A. Gracie
Description: Anomocytic and anisocytic stomata of two species of the actinomorphic-flowered Gustavia from central French Guiana. Drawing from Mori & Black in Mori & collaborators (1987). It is clear that in the anomocytic type illustrated here there is no differentiation between the subsidiary cells and the other epidermal cells. In contrast, in the anisocytic type as illustrated here the single small cell is not markely smaller but there is a consistent difference among the stomata in that one cell is smaller.