Stomata in Swietenia (Meliaceae) and Polyalthia (Annonaceae)

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Swietenia macrophylla


Comparative Analysis of Stomatal Type Swietenia macrophylla King and Polyalthia longifolia Bent and Hook. var. Pendula in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

by Tambaru E. (2017)

Elis Tambaru, Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Hasanuddin, Tamalanrea 90245, Makassar, Indonesia

in Int. J. Curr. Res. Aca. Rev. 5(3): 31-34 – doi: –



The purpose of this research was to know comparative analysis of leaf stomata types in trees Swietenia macrophylla King and Polyalthia longifolia Bent & Hook. Var. Pendulain Makassar City.

This research has been conducted in A.P. Pettarani Street and Industrial Area Makassar. This research used modification method acetonethen performed a descriptive analysis.

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The results showed that stomatal type of Swietenia macrophylla and Polyalthia longifolia is parasytic and phanerophor.

The highest density of leaf stomata on Swietenia macrophylla King is 877 stomata mm-2 in Industrial Area Makassar and the lowest density of stomata on the leaf Polyalthia longifolia Bent & Hook. var. Pendula is 411 stomata mm-2, in A.P. Pettarani Street.


Stomata in seedlings of Rhynchosia minima (Fabaceae)

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Rhynchosia minima (Least snoutbean)


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Micromorphological structure of seedlings of Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC. (Papilionaceae) growing in a dry ruderalized site in Karachi

by Khan D., Zaki J., Khan Y. (2017)

D. Khan 1, M. Javed Zaki 1, and Yousuf Khan 2

Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.
Centralized Science Laboratory, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.



in Int. J. Biol. Biotech. 14 (4): 539-559 –

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Stomatal types of R. minima. A, Two paracytic stomata are clearly visible. B, a paracytic stoma (bottom) and the other paracytic stomata turning into an anisocytic stoma due to a wall development in the upper subsidiary cell (shown by anarrow). C, An anisocytic stoma. Subsidiaries and ground epidermal cells are sinuous in their anticlinal contours.
The micromorphological structure of seedlings of Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC. is described, from a dry ruderalized site ofKarachi, on the basis of optical (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The seedling appeared to be “Phanerocotylar 
Epigeal-foliaceous” type.
Several types of trichomes from cotyledons and leaves and structure of the resin gland (Brown-orange bulky capitate, glandular trichome) are described. Cotyledons are amphitrichomic and amphistomatic with paracytic arrangement of subsidiary cells.
R. minima leaflets were amphistomatic with much larger number of stomata on ventral surface (283.3 ± 4.39 stomata per mm2, N = 100, CV = 38.6%) as compared to the dorsal surface (48.06 ± 1.85 stomata per mm2, N = 100, CV =38.6%).
The diversity of foliar stomata included, paracytic, anisocytic, staurocytic and anomocytic types.
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The stomatal size on abaxial surface leaf averaged to 18.53 ± 0.36 x 13.17 ± 0.30 µm. The predominating class of stomatal width (pore + guard cells)was 10.1 – 16 µm.
Stomata on adaxial surface were comparable in size (19.76 ± 0.22 x 11.19 ± 0.18 µm). Quantitative element analysis based on elements detector system (EDS) of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) is described.


Structure of Cotyledonary and Hypocotyledonary Stomata of Gossypium herbaceum

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Effect of Growth Regulators on the Structure of Cotyledonary and Hypocotyledonary Stomata of Gossypium herbaceum var. Digvijay

by Gangadhara M., Rao T. B., Inamdar J. A., Patel R. M., (1977)

Department of Botany, Sardar PATEL University, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388120, Gujarat, India.


in Phyton (Austria) 18 (1-2): 9-28 –

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Effect of certain growth regulators on the structure and ontogeny of stomata is described.

The stomatal types observed are: anomocytic, with a single subsidiary cell, paracytic, diacytic, hemidiacytic, transitional between paracytic and diacytic and anisocytic.

Developmental stages are observed for the first time in the dormant cotyledons. The development of anomocytic stomata is perigenous while that of other types is mesogenous.

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A new term “hemidiacytic” is suggested for a stoma which is enclosed by two subsidiary cells except on one side and whose common wall is at right angles to the guard cells.

The aberrant types noticed in various treatments are: 2—3 anomocytic contiguous stomata, 2—3 anisocytic contiguous stomata, twin anisocytic stomata, twin paracytic stomata, one and a half contiguous stomata, anomocytic single guard cells, anisocytic single guard cells, paracytic single guard cells, degeneration of guard cells, division of guard cells, persistent stomatal cells, unusual thickening of the wall around the guard cells, obliquely oriented guard cells, cytoplasmic connection between adjacent stomata, stomata without pores, multinucleate guard cells, unequal guard cells and division of guard mother cell.

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Contiguous stomata develop in three ways:

(i) from the adjacent meristemoids,

(ii) one from guard mother cell and another from the smallest (third) subsidiary oi its derivatives of an anisocytic stoma,

(iii) from the derivatives of the smallest subsidiary cell of an anisocytic stoma.

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The development of twin anisocytic, twin paracytic, anomocytic single guard cell, paracytic single guard cell, anisocytic single guard cell and one and a half contiguous stomata is also described.

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On the basis of ontogeny the other new terminologies suggested are: anomocytic contiguous stomata, anisocytic contiguous stomata, twin anisocytic stomata, twin paracytic stomata, anomocytic single guard cell, paracytic single guard cell and anisocytic single guard cell.


Stomata in Abutilon Mill. (Malvaceae)

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Abutilon fruticosum Guill. & Perr.

Implication of foliar epidermal features in the taxonomy of Abutilon Mill. (Malvaceae)

by Shaheen N. , Khan M. A., Yasmin G.Hayat M. Q., Ahmad M., Muhammad Zafar M., Jabeen A. (2009)

Nighat Shaheen1, Mir Ajab Khan1Ghazalah Yasmin1Muhammad Qasim Hayat1, Mushtaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Zafar1 and Asma Jabeen2
1Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan.

2Environmental Science department, Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi, Pakistan.


in J. Med. Plants Res. 3(12): 1002-1008 – ISSN: 1996-0875 –


The micro morphology of both adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of seven species of the genus Abutilon Mill. (Malvaceae) viz., Abutilon bidentatum A. R. rich, Abutilon fruticosum Guill. & Perr., Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet, Abutilonmolle (Wild.) Sweet, Abutilon muticum (Del. Ex. DC,) Sweet, Abutilon pakistanicum Jafri & Ali and Abutilon theophrasti Medic was investigated using light microscopy to explore and evaluate the taxonomic implication of foliar epidermal features particularly that of glandular and eglandular trichomes.

Leaves of all the seven species were observed to be amphistomatic and amphitrichomic. The ordinary epidermal cells were commonly polygonal with straight walls, or less often irregular in shape, with slightly undulating walls (abaxial surface of Abutilon muticum and Abutilon theophrastii).

Two types of stomata, anisocytic and diacytic were generally more concentrated on abaxial surface.

An indumentum of variable density and texture formed of wide variety of glandular and eglandular trichomes on both surfaces was characteristic of the genus. Seven diverse morphological forms of foliar trichomes were recorded. The trichome complements of each of the seven species studied were unique and thus, can easily be used as an important supportive taxonomic character to delimit each.

Density, position and size of stomata in coastal vegetation and mangroves

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Leaf structure -Coastal vegetation and mangroves of Venezuela

by Roth I. (1992)

Ingrid Roth

in Encyclopedia of Plant Anatomy, XIV(2): 172 pp., 105 fig. – ISBN 978-3-443-14020-5 –

In the first volume of the new series of the «Encyclopedia of Plant Anatomy» dealing with tropical plants, the leaf structure of a tropical montane forest in Venezuela was investigated. The series is now continued with the description of the leaf anatomy of plants growing along the Venezuelan coastline. Emphasis is laid particularly on a coastal region the flora of which does not exist any more, as the plants had to give way to the construction of an airport.

Size and appearance of the plants is described, as well as the extent of their root systems. Phenology, dispersal and propagation are discussed. Leaf size and shape, leaf position and leaf movement are important features of the coastal plant communities. Equifaciality is considered a frequent characteristic of the strand vegetation. The C4-syndrome is frequently observed. Chloroplast migration within the sheath cells is described as a new phenomenon. Salt factor and succulence are discussed as well as leaf consistence.

Density, position and size of stomata are studied. It is suggested that glandular hairs may have the function of water transportation in two opposite directions. The xeromorphic characteristics of the leaves are discussed and compared with those of plants from dryer regions in Venezuela.

Finally, the four mangrove species indigenous to Venezuela are studied and structural variations in the leaves due to changing environmental conditions and salinity are discussed. An interpretation of the function of the slimy layer in the leaves of Rhizophora is attempted.

Emphasis is laid on the influence of ecological factors on the leaf structure in general.

Stomata in Quercus



Specificities in the structure of the stomata of three different oak tree species (Quercus robur L., Quercus frainetto Ten. and Quercus cerris L.) related to the influence of ecological factors

by Bačić T. (1981)

Tomislav Bačić,

in Acta biologiae et medicinae experimentalis, 6 (1981): 1-5  –


The results of stomata investigtions of three different oak tree species (Quercus robur L., Quercus frainetto Ten. and Quercus cerris L.) in relation to the influence of ecological factors are presented.

Positions of stomata on the leaf surface and its reverse related to the epidermis level have been studied. At the same time type of stomatal apparatus and average number of stomata on the leaves of the plants differing in age, position of the leaf on the branch, leaf region and the habitat of the plant have been examined.

In all plants examined stomata are situated in the lower epidermis. They are always conveyed above the epidermal level. Cells of the stomata are of reniform or longitudinal reniform shape. Similar to the representatives of the family Gramineae, middle parts of their cell walls are thickened. Between them spindle-like spaces can be seen. From the outer side they are surrounded with 4-9 cells having wavy cell walls.

Stomata surrounded with five cells are the most abundant. By their characteristics they belong to genteloguboviding type.

By their size and the shape of the guard cells they are of anomocytic type, and by their wavy cell walls they are of distorted type. Both ganteloguboviding and anomocytic types are hereditary properties. Distorted type is to a certain degree variable and its appearance depends on the habitat, position of the leaf in phytocenological structure and environmental factors.