Stomata in Rhododendron (Ericaceae)

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Rhododendron Bushes


Significance of the leaf epidermis fingerprint for taxonomy of Genus Rhododendron

by Wang X.-w, Mao Z.-j., Choi K., Park K.-w. (2006)

Wang Xiu-weiMao Zi-junChoi KyungPark Kwang-woo

Wang Xiu-wei, Mao Zi-jun, Northeast Forestry University, Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology Ministry of Education China, Harbin, P. R. China

Choi Kyung, Park Kwang-woo, Korea Forest Service, National Arboretum, Pochen-Gun, Korea


in Journal of Forestry Research 17(3): 171-176 – DOI10.1007/s11676-006-0041-1 –


Leaf epidermal fingerprints of six species of Rhododendron (Rh. Aureaum, Rh. dauricum, Rh. micranthum, Rh. Mucronulatum, Rh. Redowskianum, Rh. schlippenbachii) were observed by optical microscope with nail polish expression method in Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology of Ministry Education China in Northeast Forestry University in 2004.

The leaf morphological features including of stomata types, characters of guard cells, subsidiary cells in lower epidemis were observed. And ordinary cells (in shape and anticlinal walls feature) as well as the trichomes in both sides of the leaves are described in detail.

The results showed that there were three types of stoma in six investigated Rhododendron species, from which pericytic stomata type exists in three species (Rh. dauricum, Rh. micranthum, and Rh. mucronulatum),

Anomocytic stomatal type in Rh. Redowskianum, diacytic stomata type in Rh. aureaum and Rh. schlippenbachii. The subsidiary cells of the pericytic and diacytic stomata type are different in shape and surface feature between the species, respectively.

The ordinary epidermal cells show a variety from quadrangular to hexagonal, polygonal or irregular in surface view, the anticlinal walls are straight or sinuose. Trichomes (gland scales) are present in the both of the leaf sides in three species (Rh. dauricum, Rh. micranthum, and Rh. mucronulatum).

All of these detail leaf features show specific specificity of leaf fingerprint for 6 rhododendrons.


Stomata in Echium vulgare L. flowers (Boraginaceae)

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Viper’s Bugloss, Echium vulgare


Micromorphology of glandular structures in Echium vulgare L. flowers

by Weryszko-Chmielewska E., Chwil M. (2007)

Weryszko-Chmielewska E., Department of Botany, University of Life Sciences, Akademicka 15, 20-950 Lublin, Poland

in Acta Agrobotanica 61: 2 –  ISSN :0065-0951 –



Ontogenesis of D-type stomata and cork-warts and functional assessment

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Camellia japonica ‘Adolphe Audusson


Ontogenesis of D-type stomata and cork-warts on the leaf epidermis of Camellia japonica (Theaceae) and functional assessment

by Qi Z., Pi E., Zhang X., Möller M., Jiang B., Lu H. (2017)

Zhechen QiErxu PiXiaodan ZhangMichael MöllerBo JiangHongfei Lu

Zhechen Qi, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China

Erxu Pi, School of Life & Environment Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036, China

Michael Möller, Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, EH3 5LR, Scotland, United Kingdom


in Flora 228: 24-30 – DOI10.1016/j.flora.2017.01.010


Cork-warts are particular structures forming round areas by radially arranged concentric rows of suberized cells, and have been found in many flowering plant genera. The roles of large D-type stomata and cork-warts in plant blades remained unclear for many years.

To distinguish the large D-type stomata from cork-warts and identify their possible functions, both the lower epidermis and cross-sections of leaves were studied in Camellia japonica L.

Simultaneously, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) technology was used to assess whether the cork-warts were really the structures accumulating suberin. Furthermore, the gas exchange and water evaporation functions of D-type stomata and cork-warts were measured.

The results showed that D-type stomata and cork-warts had the same origin but they developed into two separate functional structures at different developmental stages. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that the cork-warts accumulated more suberin with phenolic domains, and more cell wall polysaccharide than matured typical stomata and cork-wart protomeristem.

It is proposed that the D-type stomata and cork-warts are responsible for air exchange and water evaporation and their presence might correlate with the adaptation of Camellia species to the more humid understory environment.


Conifer stomata appear to be an important tool for complementing pollen analysis in reconstruction of vegetation history



Study of modern pollen and stomata from surface lacustrine sediments from the eastern edge of Tibetan Plateau, China

by Li C., Li Y.  (2015)

Chunhai LiYongxiang Li

in Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 221: 184-191 – DOI10.1016/j.revpalbo.2015.07.006 –


To examine the relationships between pollen, conifer stomata and vegetation in high mountainous areas, the pollen and conifer stomata contents of surface sediments from 26 lakes in the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau were analyzed.

Pollen analyses show that pine forests have distinct pollen assemblages that are characterized by high abundance of Pinus pollen and subtropical taxa such as Castanopsis, Eurya pollen.

Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) also indicates that pine forests can be distinguished from cold coniferous forests and the Alpine shrub and meadow based on pollen analysis. However, cold coniferous forests and the alpine shrub and meadow cannot be differentiated by pollen analyses.

This is best illustrated by the DCA analysis, which shows that both plant communities are characterized by a higher abundance of pollen such as Picea, Tsuga, and Quercus.

Analyses of stomata reveal that Pinus stomata only occur in samples collected from the regions with pine forests, and cold conifer stomata were not found in the Alpine lakes except for one lake, which was likely influenced by human activities.

Therefore, conifer stomata appear to be an important tool that complements pollen analysis in reconstructing vegetation history of high mountainous areas, especially for tree line migration.

Stomata on fruits of Rosa

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Rosa hips

Stomata on the pericarp of species of the genus Rosa L. (Rosaceae)

Zieliński J., Tomaszewski D., Guzicka M., Maciejewska-Rutkowska I. (2010)

Jerzy ZielińskiDominik TomaszewskiMarzenna GuzickaIrmina Maciejewska-Rutkowska

Jerzy Zieliński, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Dendrology, Kórnik, Poland

Irmina Maciejewska-Rutkowska, University of Life Sciences, Department of Forest Natural Foundations, Poznań, Poland


in Plant Systematics and Evolution 284(1-2): 49-55 – DOI10.1007/s00606-009-0234-0 –


Achenes of 36 species representing all subgenera and sections of the genus Rosa were studied.

All have stomata on the pericarp that seem to be normal in appearance. They are usually few, scattered, mostly on the upper part of fruit, and open or closed.

This is the first report of stomata on fruits of Rosa.


Stomata and salt glands in Limonium gmelinii

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Limonium gmelinii hungaricum


ESEM and Edax observations on leaf and stem epidermal structures (stomata and salt glands) in Limonium gmelinii (Willd.) Kuntze

by Daraban I.-N., Mihali C. V., Turcus V., Ardelean A., Arsene G.-G. (2013)

Iulia-Natalia Daraban1 , C. V. Mihali1 , Violeta Turcus2 , A. Ardelean2 , G.-G. Arsene2,3




in Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology; Arad18.1 (2013): 123-130 –


Plants sampled in a Limonium gmelinii population in Vărsand (Arad, Romania), from a permanent salty meadow are examinated in ESEM and EDAX. The observed structure are the salt glands and the stomata on leaf and stem epidermis.

Specimen were obtained from 10 individual plants. Measurements concern the area of salt glands, their density in leaves epidermis, the longitudinal and transversal dimensions of stomata, and the distance between the salt glands and the nearest stomata.

A higher salt glands area was found in leaves adaxial epidermis, compared to the abaxial epidermis, but the limits of variation are alike.

The stomata are longer in stem epidermis, but their mean width is lower than in leaves epidermis.

The main chemical element, revealed by EDAX observation, in salt glands excreta is calcium.

Stomata and classification of the Olacaceae



Leaf anatomy and classification of the Olacaceae, Octoknema, and Erythmpalum

by Baas P., van Oosterhoud E., Scholtes C. J. L., (1982)

Rihjksherbarium Leiden, The Netherlands

in Allertonia 3: 155–210 –

Google Scholar –


The leaf anatomy of all genera of Olacaceae and of Erythropalum and Octoknema is described in detail, and a key to genera is provided. The Olacaceae show an estraordinary amount of leaf anatomical diversity which lends itself well for classification purposes.
Decisive characters of taxonomic significance are: secretory cavities; laticifers; silicified mesophyll cells; vascular system of petiole and midrib; supporting sclerenchyma fibres and brachy-astrosclereids in petiole and midrib; stomatal type; lignification of guard cells; position of lumina in the guard cells and development of outer cuticular ledges; crystalliferous development.
Varying characters such as occurrence and type of mesophyll sclereids, occurrence of silica bodies, and various crystal complements are of more restricted taxonomic value (i.e., mostly below the genus level). Based on different combinations of characters, nine groups can be distinguished. Two of these are represented by the single genera Erythropalum and Octoknema, which take isolated positions within the family, or for which family status (Erythropalaceae and Octoknemaceae) could be advocated. The other seven groups can be arranged in a system reflecting phylogenetic relationships. These groups show a fair degree of correlation with the traditional tribes recognised on macromorphological and ovule characters: Group I coincides with the tribe Couleae; Group II consists of the single genus Heisteria; Group III consists of Chaunochiton; Group IV comprises the tribes Aptandreae, Olaceae, and Ximenieae, as well as the genera Schoepfia, Malania, and Douradoa; Group V consists of Anacolosa, Phanerodiscus, and Cathedra, previously forming part of the Anacoloseae; Group VI, Scorodocarpus and Brachynema, was formerly also part of Anacoloseae, as well as Group VII, consisting of Strombosia, Strombosiopsis, Tetrastylidium, and Diogoa. The main new elements of this grouping are: the abolishment of subfamily boundaries; the artificial nature of the tribe Anacoloseae (group V is not closely related to groups VI and VII but rather to group IV); and the close links of Chaunochiton with groups IV and V rather than with Heisteria, with which it was formerly treated in the same tribe, the Heisterieae. The phylogenetic reconstruction of the Olacaceae based on cladistic methods is discussed in relation to data from wood anatomy, pollen, and ovule morphology and parasitism in the family. The specialised groups of the Olaceceae are clearly related to other santalalean families, notably Santalaceae, Loranthaceae, Misodendraceae, and Opiliaceae. The Olacaceae are a basic family within the Santalales, of which the wider affinities cannot be unambiguously established by leaf anatomy, but traditionally advocated links was Celastrales can be supported. On account of the pantropical, transpacific, or transatlantic distribution of most of the leaf anatomically recognised groups, it is argued that they must have differentiated before the breaking up of Gondwanaland, and that many of the leaf anatomical characters of individual Olacaceae are very conservative and date back to Cretaceous times.