A number of studies have highlighted differences in the density of stomata between Vitis species, but few have examined differences between varieties of V. vinifera.
The density and size of the stomata in the lower epidermis of leaves belonging to 12 grapevine varieties, a direct producer hybrid (DPH) involving a V. vinifera and a non-vinifera parent, and the non-vini- fera rootstocks ‘SO4’ and ‘110-Richter’, were therefore examined.
Transparent nail polish peel prints of the area between the main and right lateral veins were pro- duced for 10 leaves per variety. These prints were then examined under a light microscope and the number of stomata in a unit area of 0.196 mm2 counted.
Image analysis software was then used to measure the length and width of all those counted. Rootstock ‘SO4’, ‘Chas- selas Dorée’, ‘Albariño’ and ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ had the highest stomatal densities (all > 34 stomata per unit area), while ‘Castañal’, ‘Torrontés’ and ‘Caiño Blan- co’ and ‘Jacquez’ (DPH), had the smallest (all < 26.50 stomata per unit area). ‘
Treixadura’ and ‘Caiño Blan- co’ had significantly longer and wider stomata than all the other varieties examined; the DPH ‘Jacquez’ had among the shortest and narrowest.
No relationship was seen, however, between mean varietal leaf size and the stomatal density or stomatal size; nor was any seen between the variables examined and the condition of be- longing to V. vinifera or not.
Gmelina arborea Roxb. is a medium sized, unarmed, deciduous tree with whitish gray smooth bark. The plant is also important medicinal. Its flowers are showy, 2.5–3.5 cm long, brownish-yellow usually in small, opposite decussately arranged small cymes of about three flowers along the axis of a densely fulvous-hairy terminal panicles. Floral epidermal features including nature of epidermal cells, stomata and trichomes along with their dimensions of all floral parts are studied.
Epidermal cells are found straight walled in peduncle, bract, stamen, carpel and fruit with cuticular striations in staminal cells, broadly sinuate in calyx, broadly and deeply sinuate in adaxial and abaxial surfaces of corolla lobes respectively.
Peduncle, fruit are astomatic and bracts, calyx and corolla lobes are hypostomatic. They are anomocytic in bract, anomocytic, diacytic and paracytic in calyx and anomocytic and very occasional abaxially on corolla lobe.
Trichomes are of two types non-glandular and glandular, which vary, in minute details on different parts. Unique multiseriate glandular trichomes are exclusively found on filaments.
Floral trichomes are found species specific and suggestive of their functional significance.
The history of herbal medicines is as old as human civilization. In recent times there has been a global trend towards herbal medicines. Many of the botanical, chemical techniques employed in pharmacognosy, quality control of crude drug and its pharmaceuticals can be attempted by different methods of evaluation and one of them is morphological and microscopical studies of crude drug.
In present study pharmacognostical characterization of Clerodendrum serratum (L.) Moon. (Verbenaceae) is attempted which is a medicinal shrub with delightful blooms useful for broad array of ailments from fever to snake bite.
The study includes microscopic study of young stem, vessel elements, petiole-both qualitative and quantitative characters, leaf architecture, leaf constants like stomatal frequency, index number of epidermal cells, their types, vegetative and floral trichomes and epidermal features as anatomical characters are fixed and hence reliable.
The five species of Clerodendrum have been investigated for epidermal structure. The walls of the epidermal cells are sinuous. The abaxial epidermis shows more sinuous nature in same species. The culticular striations are noted in C. inerme on lower epidermis. The leaves are hypostomatic but in C. philippinum is amphistomatic.
The stomata are present on both the surfaces. However, the stomatal number is less on the adaxial surface. The stomata are mostly anomocytic. Anisocytic, diacytic and tetracytic types also occur. The diacytic stomata are dominant in C. serratum.
Both glandular trichomes are sessile and occur in the form of scales. In C. aculeatum, variation is seen in the structure of scales.
Leaf epidermal preparations of seven species within the Sterculiaceae and Verbenaceae were examined with light microscope to determine stomata patterns and other features of taxonomic importance.
Impression technique was conducted on freshly harvested leaves to reveal important foliar epidermal characters.
The stomata size, index and cell wall thickness were measured following standard procedures. Stomata were only seen in the abaxial surface of all the species, with four types observed; anomocytic, paracytic, diacytic and anisocytic. Anomocytic type was recorded for Duranta erecta, Tectonia grandis and Vitex doniana while Gmelina arborea had diacytic type.
Sterculiaceae species showed anomocytic in Cola gigantea, anisocytic in Theobroma cacao and paracytic in Cola rostrata.
Stomata sizes, numbers and epidermal cells varied across the families. Stomatal size, index and wall thickness varied greatly within the species. Variations and similarities observed in the stomatal features provide evidence of the genetic and evolutionary relationships and therefore are of taxonomic importance.
Abaxial and adaxial leaf epidermal anatomy of eight species of Verbenaceae was studied based on leaf epidermal characters of Lantana camara, L. indnca, Verbena bonariensis, Ver. officinalis, Ver. bipinnatifida, Ver. hybrida, Vitex negundo and V. trifolia.
These species showed variations in stomata types and size, epidermal cell shape size and trichomes shape. Most of the characters especially trichomes were diagnostic and used for distinguishing taxa.
Trichomes were mostly macrohair but on adaxial surface of Ver. bonariensis and both the surfaces of V. negundo and abaxial surface of V. trifolia microhair were also observed. Macrohair (197 x 24 μm) were observed in Ver. hybrida and glandular hairs were also seen. Microhairs (12 x 12 μm) were noted in V. negundo.
Glandular hairs were observed in L. camara, Ver.bonariensis, V. negundo and V. trifolia. Trichomes were well segmented in Vitex spp. Trichomes of L. camara on abaxial surface had aggregates of 5 basal-cells, in L. indica there was just one basal, while in L. indica they were different from that of L. camara being broader at the base and swollen little bit before tip.
Leaf epidermal anatomy was found taxonomically useful in the identification at the generic and species level.
There are 21 species of Verbena L. in Argentina, six of which are found in the Buenos Aires province: Verbena gracilescens (Cham.) Verter; V. bonariensis L.; V. intermedia Gillies and Hook; V. litoralis Kunth; V. montevidensis Spreng. and V. rigida Spreng.
These species are used in popular medicine for their hepatoprotective, digestive, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal and healing properties. The stems and leaves of these species were fixed and transverse sections were cut for observation with a light microscope in order to differentiate their anatomical features.
Likewise a scanning electron microscope and an environmental scanning electron microscope were used to study the leaf surface of these species. The type and density of stomata and glandular and nonglandular trichomes were analysed in all species, as well as the internal structure of the leaf and stem.
The Verbena species of Buenos Aires province have been characterized using these features to help in their identification.