Stomatal ontogeny in some Lythraceae



Stomatal ontogeny in some Lythraceae

by Thanki Y. I., Shah K., Garasia K. K., (2000)

Department of Biosciences, South Gujarat University, Udhna Magdalla Road, Surat – 395 007, India.


in Journ. Phytological Research 13(2): 187-189 –

Abstract :

The stomatal structure and development in Ammannia bacciferaLagerstroemia indicaLagerstroemia parvifloraLagerstroemia speciosaLawsonia inermisPunica granatumRotala serpyllifolia, Sonneratia apetala and Woodfordia fruticosa were studied.

The leaves of A. baccifera, R. serpylifolia and S. apetala were amphistomatic while the rest of the species were hypostomatic. The stomata identified were either anemocytic (all species), haplocytic (all species), paracytic (S. apetala), tetracytic (S. apetala), contiguous (A. baccifera, Lagerstroemia indica, Lagerstroemia speciosa and W. fruticosa) or that which consisted of a single guard cell (all species except W. fruticosa).

The development of meristemoid, which is a heavily stained cell with a prominent nucleus and is smaller than the surrounding epidermal cells, in relation to the formation of the various stomatal types is briefly discussed.


Stomata in Rotala (Lythraceae)

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Foliar epidermal features and their taxonomic significance in Rotala L. (Lythraceae)

by Kshirsagar A. A., Vaikos N. P. (2013)

Anil A. Kshirsagar1 and N. P. Vaikos2

1 UG & PG Department of Botany, Shivaji Arts, Comm. & Science College, Kannad, Aurangabad (MS)

2 Department of Botany, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad (MS), Presently at Sonchafa, Mahavir Nagar, Osmanpura, Aurangabad



in Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research 3(3): 117-120 –


The present study deals with the epidermal diversity in nine species of Rotala L. belonging to the family Lythraceae.

The leaves are small, variable in shape, size and amphistomatic. The upper epidermal cells are generally larger than the lower epidermal cells; the anticlinal cell walls are wavy or sinuous.

The stomata are anisocytic and anomocytic. A peculiar wall thickening at polar end of the stomata is noted in Rotala serpyllifolia. The 2-celled glandular trichomes occur in R. malampuzhensis and the scales in R. floribunda.


The number of stomata is more on the lower surface whereas few stomata occur on the upper surface. A peculiar wall thickening at polar end of guard cells is observed in the leaves of Rotala serpyllifolia [Figs. QR]. The stomata are anomocytic in Rotala densiflora, R. floribunda, R. indica, R. occultiflora, R. serpyllifolia [Figs. AB, EF, GH, KL, QR] whereas anisocytic in R. fimbriata, R. malampuzhensis, R. rotundifolia, and R. rosea [Figs. CD, IJ, MN, OP].Trichomes are 2-celled and glandular in the leaves of R. malampuzhensis [Fig. S ] and in the form of scales in R. floribunda. [Fig. S].

The maximum number of stomatal index occurs in abaxial surface of leaf as in Rotala serpyllifolia, while minimum in R.occultiflora , whereas in adaxial surface the maximum number of stomatal index is noted in R.serpyllifolia and the minimum in R. floribunda [Table: 1]. The stomatal index of other plants are given in Table No. 1. The maximum number of stomatal frequency occurs in abaxial surface [lower epidermis] of leaf as in Rotala occultiflora.[38.1/mm2 ] while minimum number in Rotala fimbriata [23.6/mm2 ] whereas in adaxial surface [upper epidermis] the maximum number of stomatal frequency is noted in R.floribunda[27.7/mm2 ] and the minimum in R.rosea [19.4/ mm2 ] [Table: 2]. The stomatal frequency of other plants are given in Table No.2.

Stomata in Phragmanthera capitata (Loranthaceae)

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(c, d) represent the adaxial epidermis showing the paracytic stomata (st) at ×100 and ×400, respectively.


Micromorphological Studies of the Loranthaceae, Phragmanthera capitata (Sprengel) Balle

by Ohikhena F. U., Wintola O. A., Afolayan A. J. (2017)

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Center, Botany Department, University of Fort Hare, Alice, Eastern Cape, South Africa


in Journal of Botany 2017, Article ID 5603140, 9 pages – –

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(b) and (c) revealing the dense stomata (green circles are the point of trichomes detachment) at varying magnifications.

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f) are the adaxial epidermis showing the stomata (st)

Stomata in nectaries of Digitalis purpurea



The Floral Nectary of Digitalis purpurea L., Structure and Nectar Secretion

by Gaffal K. P., Heimler W., El-Gammal S., (1997)



in Annals of Botany 81(2):251-262 – DOI 10.1006/anbo.1997.0546 –

The floral nectary of the foxglove (Digitalis purpureaL.), located at the base of the ovary, was examined by: scanning electron microscopy; quantitative bright-field microscopy via computer-aided 3-D reconstruction from serial sections; morphometric procedures; transmission electron microscopy and measurement of nectar efflux under different experimental conditions.
Time-lapse video recording via a microscope with incident light clearly showed that the nectar escaped from the apertures of modified stomata. The volume flux via individual stomatal apertures was 0.31±0.1 nl min-1; therefore only a fraction of the total number of stomata per nectary (115±8) would be sufficient to discharge the amount of nectar reported in previous publications.
The stomatal apertures are continuous with intercellular spaces traversing the small-celled nectariferous tissue. The latter is vascularized only by phloem, whose termini consists of rows of slender cells. These sieve-like cells are surrounded by more or less isodiametrical sheath cells with dimensions similar to the secretory cells. Details of nectary functioning are based on enhanced structural information, complementary data on nectar discharge after experimental manipulations and the nature of the effluence.

Stomata in Chamelaucium uncinatum (Myrtaceae)



Ultrastructure and Function of Floral Nectaries of Chamelaucium uncinatum (Myrtaceae)

O’Brien S. P., Loveys B. R., Grant W.J.R. (1996)


in Annals of Botany 78(2) – DOI 10.1006/anbo.1996.0112 –


Nectar is secreted for up to 11d after anthesis in Chamelaucium uncinatum . The volume and sucrose concentration secreted varies between flowers, plants and days. The period of nectar secretion coincides with the period of pollen presentation and stigmatic receptivity suggesting nectar is part of an efficient reproductive strategy in C. uncinatum .
The nectary of C. uncinatum consists of the entire upper surface of the ovary and hypanthium. The epidermis of the nectary is covered by a thickened cuticle which is only broken at the sites of the numerous modified stomata which are scattered across its surface. It is suggested that nectar is secreted onto the surface of the ovary via these modified stomata.
The presence of extensive and well developed endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and Golgi bodies in the nectar secreting cells indicates that a granulocrine mechanism of secretion is occurring inC. uncinatum .

Stomata in the Limnanthaceae



The floral nectaries in the Limnanthaceae

by Link D. A. (1992)

  • Detlef A. Link, Institute of Special Botany and Botanic GardenJohannes Gutenberg-University MainzMainzFederal Republic of Germany


in Pl Syst Evol 179: 235-243 –


Floral nectaries in the Limnanthaceae are established as exoscopic basal bulges of the episepalous stamens. Their nectariferous tissues include the epidermis and hypodermal parenchyma and in Limnanthes are vascularized by phloematic branches of the staminal bundles.

Secretion occurs mainly through anomocytic stomata but, in addition, probably through the outer cuticularized thin walls of the epidermal cells.

The flower structure is comparatively simple. The nectar is often slightly concealed. A wide range of pollinators can be expected, but bees are observed to be the dominant ones. The systematic position of the family is still obscure. Taxonomic placement near to any other geranialian families or to the Caryophyllaceae is only weakly justified.

Stomata in Croton (Euphorbiaceae)

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Fig. 3: Abaxial epidermis (front view) A: Stomata: The leaf is hypostomatous, with the stomata restricted to the abaxial side. The stomata (st) are of the paracytic type and – in the transverse section – located on the same level as the epidermic cells (ec).


Traits of Leaf Anatomy of Croton lanjouwensis Jablonski (Euphorbiaceae) in Different Strata of the Plant

by Aguiar M. O., Preisinger H. (2000)

Aguiar, M.O.1 and Preisinger, H.2

1 EMBRAPA Amazônia Ocidental, Manaus-AM, Brazil

2 Universität Hamburg, Deutschland


in German-Brazilian Workshop on Neotropical Ecosystems – Achievements and Prospects of Cooperative Research Hamburg, September 3-8, 2000 Posters, Session 6: Concepts and Paradigms for Management of Ecosystem Resources –


The distribution of Croton lanjouwensis Jablonski (common Portuguese name: “Dima”) is largely restricted to the Brazilian state of Amazonas. In the Manaus region, it regenerates frequently on slashed sites and shows high growth rates (LOUREIRO 1968). It is a species which is often found in secondary forests, especially at forest margins, where it grows to 17-20 m in height and often forms the upper stratum of the forest together with other species such as Bellucia grossularioides (L.) Triana and Miconia pyrifolia Naud. (Melastomataceae). Architectural, morphological and anatomical leaf characteristics of a plant species are important indicators of their ecology and the habitats occupied. The objective of the study is to describe and interpret anatomical traits in the leaves of C. lanjouwensis in different strata of the plant, due to the differing ecological conditions in these habitats. The study is part of a comparative approach in plant ecology of common species of secondary forests in the Central Amazon.


Stomata and hairs occur mainly on the abaxial surface of the leaf, but leaves from 2 m in height even showed some stomata on the adaxial surface. The stomata, which are of the paracytic type, are homogeneously distributed on the surface of the leaf, in contrast to the hairs, which are concentrated in the apical area of the leaf.