Variation in the number of stomata and microhairs of Paspalum vaginatum

Variation in the number of stomata and microhairs of Paspalum vaginatum Sw: en relation to abiotic conditions in a breakwater in the Lagoa dos Patos estuary, RS-Brazil (Variação do número de estômatos e micropêlos em Paspalum vaginatum Sw: em relação às condições abióticas numa marisma do estuário da Lagoa dos Patos, RS-Brasil) –

de Oliveria Bastos E., Perazzolo M., Rocha Baptista J. M. (1992)

Eleci de Oliveria Bastos, Mara Perazzolo, Jusseli Maria Rocha Baptista,

Rio Grande,  ,  RS,  ,  URG,  Depto de Ciências Morfo-Biológicas


Acta Bot. Bras. 6(2) –


Paspalum vaginatum Sw., gramínea perene, estolonífera, com folhas anfistomáticas e pequenas é característica de pântanos salgados, crescendo em condições estressantes na marisma da lagoa dos Patos, molhe oeste da Barra do Rio Grande, RS. Foram feitas contagens mensais de estômatos e micropêlos nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial das lâminas e relacionadas às características abióticas do ambiente. O número de micropêlos da superfície foliar abaxial variou significativamente e diretamente com a temperatura da água intersticial junto às rizosferas. Estes, porém, não mantiveram correlação com a salinidade intersticial. Os resultados sugerem que a espécie seja uma halófita facultativa. O número de estômatos da superfície abaxial manteve um relacionamento inverso com a pluviosidade. Paspalum vaginatum, apresenta-se como uma espécie com características xeromórficas.

Paspalum vaginatum Sw., a perennial, stoloniferous grass with small leaves presenting stomata on both epidermises is characteristic of salt marshes, growing under stressful conditions near the west breakwater of the Rio Grande outlet, Lagoa dos Patos, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Monthly counts of stomata and microhairs on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces were related to the abiotic characteristics of the enviroment. The number of microhairs of the abaxial leaf surface varied significantly and directly with interstitial water temperature close to the rhyzosphere. However, these counts did not correlate with the interstitial salinity.

The results suggest that the species is a facultative halophyte. Stomata counts of the abaxial surface showed an inverse relation to precipitation. Paspalum vaginatum appears to be a species with xeromorphic characteristics.

Stomata in Aglonema (Araceae)

Cara Membersihkan Stomata Daun Aglonema agar Tumbuh Sehat dan Subur (Tangkapan Layar Youtube Hobi Bunga)

Cara Membersihkan Stomata Daun Aglonema Agar Tumbuh Sehat dan Subur

Alzaini V. H. (2022)

Vicky Hayden Alzaini, – Agar tanaman aglonema dapat tetap tumbuh subur dan sehat, biasanya akan diberi pupuk pada tanaman hias ini.

Namun tidak jarang pemberian pupuk pada tanaman aglonema ini tidak ada reaksi sama sekali. Nah disini terdapat hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam pemberian pupuk ini.

Anda perlu melakukan tindakan rutin ini selama seminggu sekali pada tanaman aglonema, agar pupuk tersebut tetap bereaksi.

Dilansir dari video yang diunggah di Channel YouTube Hobi Bunga pada 19 Juni 2022. Berikut cara membersihkan stomata daun aglonema agar dapat tumbuh sehat dan subur

Bagian stomata daun terletak di belakang daun aglonema. Stomata ini perlu Anda bersihkan agar debu yang menutupi tidak menghambat proses fotosintesis.

Cara membersihkannya yaitu hanya cukup menyemprotkan air biasa pada bagian belakang stomata daun, dan usahakan menggunakan air yang bersih.

Penyemprotan ini sebaiknya dilakukan selama seminggu sekali.

Differences in water supply between emergent aquatic and terrestrial plants modify the coordination of their leaf veins and stomatal traits

Difference between emergent aquatic and terrestrial monocotyledonous herbs in relation to the coordination of leaf stomata with vein traits

Zhao W., Fu P., Liu G., Zhao P. (2020)

Wanli Zhao, Peili Fu, Guolan Liu, Ping Zhao,

Wanli Zhao 1-2-3-4, Peili Fu 5-6, Guolan Liu 4, Ping Zhao 1-2-3,

1 Key Laboratory of Vegetation Restoration and Management of Degraded Ecosystems, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China,

2 Center of Plant Ecology, Core Botanical Gardens, Chinese Academy
of Sciences, Guangzhou, China,

3 Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Botany, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China,

4 Shandong Key Laboratory of Eco-Environmental Science for Yellow River
Delta, Binzhou University, Binzhou, China,

5 CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yunnan 666303, China,

6 Ailaoshan Station of Subtropical Forest Ecosystem Studies,
Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jingdong, Yunnan 676209, China


AoB PLANTS 12(5): –


Emergent aquatic plants mostly occur in shallow waters and root in bottom substrates, but their leaves emerge from the water surface and are thus exposed to air, similar to the leaves of terrestrial plants. Previous studies have found coordination between leaf water supply and demand in terrestrial plants; however, whether such a coordination exists in emergent aquatic plants remains unknown.

In this study, we analysed leaf veins and stomatal characteristics of 14 emergent aquatic and 13 terrestrial monocotyledonous herb species (EMH and TMH), with 5 EMH and 8 TMH belonging to Poaceae. We found that EMH had significantly higher mean leaf area, leaf thickness, stomatal density, stomatal number per vein length and major vein diameter, but lower mean major vein length per area (VLA) and total VLA than TMH.

There was no significant difference in stomatal length, minor VLA and minor vein diameter between the two groups. Stomatal density and total VLA were positively correlated among the EMH, TMH, as well as the 8 Poaceae TMH species, but this correlation became non-significant when data from both the groups were pooled.

Our results showed that the differences in water supply between emergent aquatic and terrestrial plants modify the coordination of their leaf veins and stomatal traits.

Stomata in Caladium (Araceae)

Anatomical characteristics of Nigerian variants of Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Vent. (Araceae)

Ekeke C., Agbagwa I. O. (2016)

Chimezie Ekeke, Ikechukwu O. Agbagwa,

Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.


Afr. J. Plant Sci. 10(7): 121-129 – DOI: 10.5897/AJPS2016.1416

Stomata of Syngonium (Araceae)

Karyological and anatomical studies on Syngonium podophyllum Schott (Araceae)

Ekeke C., Elechi A., Okoli B. E. (2019)

Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science,
University of Port Harcourt P.M.B. 5323, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria


Ife Journal of Science 21(1): 99-107 – DOI: 10.4314/ijs.v21i1.8


Anatomical and cytological studies were carried out on Syngonium podophyllum which belongs to the family Araceae. Anatomical studies were achieved using free-hand sectioning and the leaves were peeled with the aid of forceps.

The species is amphistomatic having isotrycytic, tetracytic and anomocytic stomata. The anatomy of the stem, petiole, leaf lamina and leaf midrib revealed the presence of scattered bicollateral and leptocentric vascular bundles; calcium oxalate crystals (druses) and starch grains which are widely distributed in different parts of the plant. The druses help to protect the plant against insect and animal infestation. It has chromosome number of 2n = 24 (n = 12). The length of the chromosomes ranged from 2.43 ± 0.10 μm to 4.95 ± 0.07 μm and the karyotype has 7-metacentric chromosomes and 5-submetacentric chromosomes (with karyotype formula = 7m+5sm) which is reported for the first time in Nigerian species.

Leaf epidermal characters (e.g. stomata) are hereby indicated as an important tool in delimiting species in the genus Chlorophytum

Plate 2: Photomicrographs of folia epidermis of Chlorophytum plant
studied. ai, bi, ci and di show tetracytic stomata on the abaxial
surface while aii, bii, cii and dii show tetracytic stomata on the
adaxial surface of C. orchidastrum C. bichetii, C. stenopetalum and
C. macrophyllum respectively

Leaf epidermal studies of four species of Chlorophytum Ker- Gawl in Nigeria

Omokanye B. S., Mustapha O. T., Abdulrahaman A. A., Kolawole O. S., (2020)

1 National Open University of Nigeria, Offa Community Study Center Offa, Kwara State.

2,3 Department of Plant Biology Faculty of Life science, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

4 Department of Biological Sciences Federal University Kashere, Gombe State, Nigeria.

J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage 24(11): 1963-1968 – DOI: 10.4314/jasem.v24i11.17



Studies of the foliar epidermal morphology in four species of Chlorophytum; C. orchidastrum, C. bichetii, C. stenopetalum and C. macrophyllum revealed the presence of stomata on both sides of the leaves (amphistomatic stomata distribution). In C. orchidastrum, few stomata are present on the adaxial surfaces. Stomata type has no diagnostic importance as all the species studied have tetracytic stomata. Stomata index (<10%) on the adaxial surface in C. orchidastrum easily distinguished the species from others. In C. bichetii and C. macrophyllum stomata index (<50%) was recorded while stomata index (>50%) was recorded for C. stenopetalum on the adaxial surface. Stomata index on the abaxial surface also shows that fewer stomata occur in C. macrophyllum compared with C. stenopetalum. The studies also revealed smooth leaf margin for C. orchidastrum. Papillea out growth were observed on the leaf margin of C. stenopetalum and C. macrophyllum, Papillea projections were however more pronounced in C. bichetii. Leaf epidermal character is hereby indicated as an important tool in delimiting species in the genus Chlorophytum.

These orchids have various structure of epidermis cells and an anomocytic type of stomata cells that is similar to dicotyledon plants

Struktur Sel Epidermis dan Stomata Daun Beberapa Tumbuhan Suku Orchidaceae

Rompas Y. (2011)

Yulanda Rompas,

Department of Biology
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural SciencesUniversitas Sam Ratulangi. Manado, North Sulawesi


Jurnal Bios Logos 1(1): 13–19 –


Telah dilakukan penelitian untuk menentukan struktur sel epidermis dan stomata pada beberapa tumbuhan anggota suku Orchidaceae yang merupakan anggota marga Arachnis, Phalaenopsis dan Vanilla. Metode deskriptif digunakan untuk menggambarkan struktur sel epidermis dan stomata daun anggrek kalajengking, anggrek bulan dan vanili berdasarkan pengamatan irisan memanjang sel-sel epidermis pada permukaan bawah daun dengan mikroskop cahaya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya variasi struktur sel epidermis dan stomata anomositik seperti pada tumbuhan dikotil.


A research was conducted to determine the structure of epidermis and stomata cells on several Orchidaceae plants, such as genus Arachnis, Phalaenopsis and Vanilla. The descriptive method was used to describe the structure of epidermis and leaf stomata cells of scorpion orchids, moon orchids and vanilla by observing the epidermis of longitudinal section of lower leaf using light microscope. The research result showed that these plants had various structure of epidermis cells and had anomocytic type of stomata cells that was similar to dicotyledon plants.

Stomata morphology and distribution of Paraphalaenopsis spp (Orchidaceae) from in vitro growth and greenhouse conditions

Stomata cells studies of Paraphalaenopsis spp. From in vitro and greenhouse condition

Garvita R. V., Wawangningrum H. (2020)

R. VITRI GARVITA, HARY WAWANGNINGRUM – Research Center for Plant Conservation and Botanic Gardens, Indonesian Institute of Sciences. Jl. Ir. H. Juanda No. 13, Bogor 16123, West Java, Indonesia


Biodiversitas 21(3): 1116–1121 –


In vitro micropropagation is an efficient biotechnological strategy for conservation and commercial plantlet production. The ultimate success of in vitro microporapagation depends on the ability to transfer plants out of culture, known as acclimatization stage.

The morphology, anatomy and physiology of plantlets in in vitro culture conditions is different from the plants in environment condition (greenhouse), therefore they are unable to compete with soil microbes and to cope with the environmental conditions.

The aim of this research is to determine stomata morphology and distribution of Paraphalaenopsis spp (Orchidaceae) from in vitro growth and greenhouse conditions. The leaf stomata cells of Paraphalaenopsis spp. (Paraphalaenopsis serpentilingua, Paraphalaenopsis labukensis and Paraphalaenopsis laycockii) was undertaken by observing the stomata preparation of the upper leaf and lower leaf by using microscope fitted with optic visual seven. The descriptive method was used to describe the stomata morphology by observing the epidermis of longitudinal section and stomata length of upper and lower leaf by using a microscope. The results showed that these plants had anomocytic type of stomata cells. The distributions of stomata are in the upper and lower epidermis leaf in all Paraphalaenopsis spp from in vitro growth and greenhouse.

Spatial pattern of stomata in Michelia

Spatial distribution characteristics of stomata at the areole level in Michelia cavaleriei var. platypetala (Magnoliaceae)

The spatial pattern of stomata is mainly caused by small-scale epidermal competition.

Shi P., Jiao Y., Diggle P. J., Turner R., Wang R., Niinemets Ü. (2021)

Annals of Botany –

In hierarchically reticulate venation patterns, smaller orders of veins form areoles in which stomata are located. Shi et al. aimed to quantify the spatial relationship among stomata at the areole level.

Previous studies have shown that stomatal density is negatively correlated with stomatal size, so that a lower stomatal density corresponds to a larger stomatal size. On average, the number of stomata within an areole is observed to be positively related to the areole size for many plant groups. Although prior studies have shown a negative correlation between the lamina surface area occupied by vascular bundle sheaths and stomatal density, the spatial relationship between stomata has not been extensively examined.

Positions of the sections sampled for analysis of stomatal distributions (left panel) and an image of a representative chemically cleared leaf showing the venation pattern (right panel) of the warm temperate evergreen tree M. cavaleriei var. platypetala. Source Shi et al. 2021.

For each of 12 leaves of Michelia cavaleriei var. platypetala, the scientists assumed that stomatal characteristics were symmetrical on either side of the midrib, and divided the leaf surface on one side of the midrib into six layers equidistantly spaced along the apical–basal axis. They then further divided each layer into three positions equidistantly spaced from midrib to leaf margin, resulting in a total of 18 sampling locations. In addition, for 60 leaves, they sampled three positions from midrib to margin within only the widest layer of the leaf. Stomatal density and mean nearest neighbour distance (MNND) were calculated for each section. A replicated spatial point pattern approach quantified stomatal spatial relationships at different distances (0–300 μm).

The botanists observed a tendency towards regular arrangement (inhibition as opposed to attraction or clustering) between stomatal centres at distances <100 μm. Spatial inhibition might be caused by the one-cell-spacing rule, resulting in more regular arrangement of stomata, and it was found to exist at distances up to ~100 μm. This work implies that leaf hydraulic architecture, consisting of both vascular and mesophyll properties, is sufficient to prevent important spatial variability in water supply at the areole level.

Oryza barthii can be used in traditional breeding programs in enhancing the stomatal size of elite rice cultivars

Stomatal diversity in Oryza “Sativa Complex”. Files of stomata are arranged in parallel on the surface along the length of the leaf. Some of the stomatal complexes are shown by red arrows. Scale bar is 50.0 μm. The images are captured from the abaxial epidermal layers after scraping of leaf tissues, under 40x magnification with 10x eyepiece of a BX51 light microscope (Olympus). The oval shapes are the marks of trichomes on the leaf. Difference in number and size in stomata is very prominent in the species. Note the larger stomata of O. glaberrima, O. barthii and smaller stomata of O. nivara and O. meridionalis as compared to Oryza sativa. Red lined boxes are the zoomed part of the leaves showing stomatal features

Natural Diversity in Stomatal Features of Cultivated and Wild Oryza Species

Chatterjee J., Thakur V., Nepomuceno R., Coe R. A., Dionora J., Elmido-Mabilangan A., Llave A. D., Delos Reyes A. m., Monroy A. N., Canicosa I., Bandyopadhyay, Jena K. K., Brar D. S., Quick W. P. (2020)

Jolly ChatterjeeVivek ThakurRobert NepomucenoRobert A. CoeJacqueline DionoraAbigail Elmido-MabilanganAbraham Darius LlaveAnna Mae Delos ReyesApollo Neil MonroyIrma CanicosaAnindya BandyopadhyayKshirod K. JenaDarshan S. BrarWilliam Paul Quick,

Rice 13: 58 –



Stomata in rice control a number of physiological processes by regulating gas and water exchange between the atmosphere and plant tissues. The impact of the structural diversity of these micropores on its conductance level is an important area to explore before introducing stomatal traits into any breeding program in order to increase photosynthesis and crop yield. Therefore, an intensive measurement of structural components of stomatal complex (SC) of twenty three Oryza species spanning the primary, secondary and tertiary gene pools of rice has been conducted.


Extensive diversity was found in stomatal number and size in different Oryza species and Oryza complexes. Interestingly, the dynamics of stomatal traits in Oryza family varies differently within different Oryza genetic complexes. Example, the Sativa complex exhibits the greatest diversity in stomatal number, while the Officinalis complex is more diverse for its stomatal size. Combining the structural information with the Oryza phylogeny revealed that speciation has tended towards increasing stomatal density rather than stomatal size in rice family. Thus, the most recent species (i.e. the domesticated rice) eventually has developed smaller yet numerous stomata. Along with this, speciation has also resulted in a steady increase in stomatal conductance (anatomical, gmax) in different Oryza species. These two results unambiguously prove that increasing stomatal number (which results in stomatal size reduction) has increased the stomatal conductance in rice. Correlations of structural traits with the anatomical conductance, leaf carbon isotope discrimination (∆13C) and major leaf morphological and anatomical traits provide strong supports to untangle the ever mysterious dependencies of these traits in rice. The result displayed an expected negative correlation in the number and size of stomata; and positive correlations among the stomatal length, width and area with guard cell length, width on both abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces. In addition, gmax is found to be positively correlated with stomatal number and guard cell length. The ∆13C values of rice species showed a positive correlation with stomatal number, which suggest an increased water loss with increased stomatal number. Interestingly, in contrast, the ∆13C consistently shows a negative relationship with stomatal and guard cell size, which suggests that the water loss is less when the stomata are larger. Therefore, we hypothesize that increasing stomatal size, instead of numbers, is a better approach for breeding programs in order to minimize the water loss through stomata in rice.


Current paper generates useful data on stomatal profile of wild rice that is hitherto unknown for the rice science community. It has been proved here that the speciation has resulted in an increased stomatal number accompanied by size reduction during Oryza’s evolutionary course; this has resulted in an increased gmax but reduced water use efficiency. Although may not be the sole driver of water use efficiency in rice, our data suggests that stomata are a potential target for modifying the currently low water use efficiency in domesticated rice. It is proposed that Oryza barthii can be used in traditional breeding programs in enhancing the stomatal size of elite rice cultivars.