Stomata and dehydration and rehydration in grass leaves

Figure 2. The fully hydrated leaf.
The leaf surfaces.
(2a) The abaxial surface print, showing stomata, elongated epidermal cells and short egg-timer shaped cells (arrow) (bar = 50 􏰂m). (2b) SEM micrograph of the lower cell surface with a stoma and egg-timer shaped cells (arrows). No epicuticular waxes are visible (bar = 10 􏰂m). (2c) The adaxial surface print with leaf sector protrusions, stoma layers, small egg-timer shaped cells (arrow) and irregularly distributed hairs (double arrow) (bar = 100 􏰂m). (2d) SEM micrograph of the upper surface covered with epicuticular waxes (bar = 10 􏰂m).

Morphological and ultrastructural aspects of dehydration and rehydration in leaves of Sporobolus stapfianus

by Dalla Vechia F., El Asmar T., Calamassi R., Rascio N., Vazzana C. (1998)

Francesca Dalla Vecchia1, Toufik El Asmar2, Roberto Calamassi3, Nicoletta Rascio1 & Concetta Vazzana2

1 Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Padova, Via Trieste 75, I-35121 Padova, Italy;

2 Dipartimento di Agronomia e Produzioni Erbacee, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale delle Cascine 18, I-50144 Firenze, Italy;

3 Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Lab. di Botanica Agraria e Forestale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale delle Cascine 18, I-50144 Firenze, Italy


In Plant Growth Regulation 24: 219-228 – DOI: 10.1023/A:1005853527769 –

10.1023_A-1005853527769.pdf –


The resurrection species Sporobolus stapfianus Gandoger has been studied by LM, TEM and SEM in order to define the leaf morphology and fine structure and to analyse the cellular changes occurring during the processes of dehydration and rehydration of the plant.

Some characteristics of the fully hydrated leaf and some ultrastructural and physiological events which take place during leaf wilting are discussed in relation to their possible role in plant desiccation-tolerance.

The leaves of S. stapfianus show several characteristics common among xerophytic species. In the resurrection leaf they could play a role in slowing down the drying rate, thus leaving time to activate the mechanisms protecting the cell structures against drought damage.

Actually, the S. stapfianus leaves do not undergo important cellular alterations during dehydration. The chloroplasts, in particular, retain part of their photosynthetic pigments and thylakoid membranes. Upon rewatering leaf recovery is rather fast and the tissue structure and cell organization of the fully hydrated state are already regained after two days.


Stomata in Aloe section Pictae (Xanthorrhoeaceae)

Figure 1. Scanning electron micrograph of stomatal complex on adaxial leaf surface of Aloe umfoloziensis in transverse section: ec, epistomatal chamber; g, guard cell; i, inner cuticular ledge; l, lobe; o, outer cuticular ledge; s, subsidiary cell; sc, substomatal chamber. Scale bar, 10 mm.

Taxonomic significance of leaf surface morphology in Aloe section Pictae (Xanthorrhoeaceae)

by Grace O. M., Simmonds M. S. J., Smith G. F., Van Wijk A. E. (2009)


1 Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK
2 Department of Plant Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa
3 South African National Biodiversity Institute, Private Bag 101, Pretoria 0002, South Africa


In Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 160(4): 418-428 – –


Leaf surface morphology was analysed in 32 species representing the maculate species complex (the poorly resolved section Pictae) in the genus Aloe (Xanthorrhoeaceae).

Few comparative morphological data are available for the complex. Leaf surface and stomatal characters observed by scanning electron microscopy show taxonomically significant interspecific variation.

Most species are characterized by irregularly outlined, four‐ to six‐sided epidermal cells, the periclinal walls of which are flat and embellished with micropapillae and the anticlinal walls of which are indicated by channels on the leaf surface.

The outer stomatal pore is typically sunken or plane and surrounded by four lobes on the leaf surface that may overarch the epistomatal chamber.

The guard cells have distinct outer and inner stomatal ledges.

Two geographical groups, comprising southern and east African species, are distinguishable by their leaf surface morphology. These characters are diagnostic in A. ellenbeckiiA. prinslooi and A. suffulta and support changes in the delimitation of A. greatheadiiA. macrocarpa and A. swynnertonii. 

Structures which prevent excessive evaporation occur in the stomatal regions in Xanthorrhoea, Kingia and Baxteria

Photo Google : Xanthorrhoea semiplana or Yakka near the top of en:Anstey Hill Recreation Park, South Australia

The anatomical structure of the Xanthorrhoeaceae Dumort

 by Fahn A. (2008)

Abraham Fahn,

Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.

In Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 55(357): 158–184 –


The anatomical structure of different plant organs of nearly all the species of the eight genera of the Xanthorrhoeaceae has been described.

The xylem elements of representative species of all the genera have been investigated in macerated material. True vessels have been found in the roots of all the genera, and in the leaves of Xanthorrhoea and Acantho-carpus. No tracheal elements except tracheids have been seen in the leaves of the other genera, or in the stems or rhizomes of all the genera. When these data are compared with those established by Cheadle (1942) for other families of the monocotyledons, it will be seen that the Xanthorrhoeaceae most closely resemble the Agavaceae.

Amphivasal vascular bundles occur in the stems and/or rhizomes of all the genera except Kingia where the xylem in all the bundles is U-shaped in transverse section. The stem structure of Xanthorrhoea provides evidence that the amphivasal type structure has arisen by the fusion of pairs of bundles with U-shaped xylem.

The leaves of all the genera have a xeromorphic anatomical structure. Special arrangements and structures, which prevent excessive evaporation occur in the stomatal regions in Xanthorrhoea, Kingia and Baxteria. 

A special type of palisade cell with annular contractions, and/or with papillose projections, occurs in Kingia, Calectasia, Lomandra and to a lesser extent in Dasypogon, and traces of this type of structure are also to be seen in the other genera of the family.

Stomata in Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium (Orchidaceae)

Fig. 3 Scanning electron microscopy of stomata in leaves of Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium. a P. bellatulum, b P. armeniacum, c P. dianthum, d C. flavum, e C. lichiangense, f C. yunnanense. Scale bars 10 lm 

Leaf anatomical structures of Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium and their adaptive significance

by Guan Z.-J., Zhang S.-B., Guan K.-Y., Li S.-Y., Hu H. (2011)

Zhi-Jie Guan, Kunming University of Science and Technology (Kunming, China)

Shi-Bao Zhang, Sohu, Beijing (China)

Kai-Yun Guan, Kunming University of Science and Technology (Kunming, China)

Shu-Yun Li, Kunming University of Science and Technology (Kunming, China)

Hong Hu, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)


Journal of Plant Research 124(2): 289-98 – DOI: 10.1007/s10265-010-0372-z –


Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium are closely related in phylogeny, but have contrasting leaf traits and habitats. To understand the divergence in leaf traits of Paphiopedilum and Cypripedium and their adaptive significance, we analyzed the leaf anatomical structures, leaf dry mass per area (LMA), leaf lifespan (LL), leaf nitrogen concentration (N mass), leaf phosphorus concentration (P mass), mass-based light-saturated photosynthetic rate (A mass), water use efficiency (WUE), photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) and leaf construction cost (CC) for six species.

Compared with Cypripedium, Paphiopedilum was characterized by drought tolerance derived from its leaf anatomical structures, including fleshy leaves, thick surface cuticles, huge adaxial epidermis cells, lower total stoma area, and sunken stomata.

The special leaf structures of Paphiopedilum were accompanied by longer LL; higher LMA, WUE, and CC; and lower N mass, P mass, A mass, and PNUE compared with Cypripedium. Leaf traits in Paphiopedilum helped it adapt to arid and nutrient-poor karst habitats.

However, the leaf traits of Cypripedium reflect adaptations to an environment characterized by rich soil, abundant soil water, and significant seasonal fluctuations in temperature and precipitation.

The present results contribute to our understanding of the divergent adaptation of leaf traits in slipper orchids, which is beneficial for the conservation of endangered orchids

Stomata in Indonesian Zingiberaceae

Figs. 1-8.
The stomata micrographs of Zingiberaceae species inLambusango WildlifeReserve, Buton Island,Indonesia.
(1) Alpinia melichroa
(2) Alpinia galanga
(3) Alpinia monoplora
(4) Alpinia sp
(5) Etlingera sp.1
(6) Etlingera sp.2
(7) Alipinia testaceum
(8) Curcuma domestica
. Magnification =400X

Leaf Anatomy and Pollen Studies of Zingiberaceae in LambusangoWildlife Reserve, Buton Island, Indonesia

by Gufrrin A., Indrawati, Ningsih R., Suratman M. N., Isa N. N. M., Poulsen A. D. (xxxx)

Amlin Gufrin, 1,2*, Indrawati; 2, Rita Ningsih, 2, Mohd Nazip Suratman, 1, Nurun Nadhirah Md Isa, 3, and4 Axel Dalberg Poulsen

1 Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Malaysia –

2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Sciences, Haluoleo University, Kendari 93117, Indonesia –

3 Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 26400 Jengka Pahang, Malaysia –

4 Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, PO Box 1172, Blindern, No-0318 Oslo, Norway


–  –


The documentation of flora in Sulawesi is far from complete. The general lack collection is confounded on Zingiberaceae. Besides, the enigmatic of the Amomum melichroaand Alpinia melichroafrom Sulawesi is still under discussion. Studies onleaf anatomy and pollen have solved many problems in plant taxonomy. In thisresearch, the characteristics of leaf anatomy and pollen were studied to correct thetaxonomy of plants. The procedure for leaf anatomy analysis was in accordance to themethod suggested by Johansen (1940) modified, whereas the pollen analysis was performed according to the chlorination method as suggested by Erdman (1952; 1954).From the study, eight species of ginger collected are found belong to be the family of Zingiberaceae namely Alpinia galanga, Alpinia melichroa, Alpinia monoplora,  Alpiniasp., Etlingerasp.1, Etlingerasp.2, Amomum testaseum, andCurcuma domestica. The leaf anatomy such as stomata index, stomata density, and stomatalength are varies between all species. However, pollen unit, shape, and size areseemed to be uniform in all species. Meanwhile, the combination between pollensymmetry, structure, e xineornamentation,exinethickness and Apertureappeared to be different among species and thus can be used as specific characters for the species.An interesting result was found on pollen of  A. melichroathat is different from other species within the same genus, which prompts question about botanical status of  A.melichroaby Schumann. From the study it is concluded that the leaf anatomy and pollen data can be used as keys for identification of ginger at species level


From the observation, all type of stomata for both leaves surfaces are identified asParacytic, in which one or more of the subsidiary cells that flank the stoma are parallel with the long axis of the guard cells. As can be seen (Table 1 and Figs 1-8) the shape of cell epidermis is dominantly elongated-hexagonal for bothadaxial andabaxial epidermis, except A. galangaandC. domesticais polygonal onadaxial suface.The stomata index for all species is different for every leaf sample in each species.The greatest stomata index value for adaxial epidermis was found in Etlingerasp.1(1.636), and the lowest in A. Monoplora(0.149). For theabaxial epidermis greatestwas found in Etlingerasp.1 (8.58), and the lowest inC. domestica(4.213). Thehighest density of stomata onadaxial epidermis is Alpiniasp (102.74), and the lowestis Etlingerasp.2 (7.52), whereas the highest density of stomata for abaxial epidermisis Etlingerasp.1 (862.1), and the lowest isC. domestica(80.98). The result from theobservation the length of stomata found that the largest stomata for adaxial epidermisisC. domestica(30. 24) and smallest is A. monoplora(17.14), whereas the largest for theabaxial epidermis isC. domestica(33.04) and the smallest is Etlingerasp.1 (13.6).Trichomes on leaves surface in this study was only found asadaxial type in species A.monoplora

Stomata in Tradescantia zebrina (Commelinaceae)

Photo Google Wikimedia Commons
Tradescantia zebrina leaf viewed under microscope, the red epidermis contrasts with the underlying green tissue and allows for easy location and identification of the stomata.

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Author: Aiofthe Storm

19 March 2014 –1,280 × 1,024 (1.63 MB)

Stomata in Rhoeo discolor (Commelinaceae)

Photo credit: Google

Photo Google Wikimedia Commons – Rhoeo discolor is used in Mexico as a medicinal plant.
Rhoeodiscolor100x1.jpg –

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Source :

12 November 2014 –1,024 × 768 (166 KB)
Photo Google Wikimedia Commons –  –
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