Article Abstract: Dendrobium Swartz is one of the largest and most problematic genera of the tribe Dendrobieae in the family Orchidaceae. Nepal harbors about 31 species of Dendrobium.

Micromorphological characters like the stomatal complex in fifteen species of Dendrobium Swartz (Orchidaceae) of Nepal were studied for understanding the taxonomic significance of the stomatal complex within the genus.

For the study of the stomatal complex of the leaf, Carpenter’s method was followed. Stomatal index and stomatal frequency were calculated using formula given by Salisbury. The terminologies used for the stomatal complex type were following those of Patel.

In all the species the leaf surface was found hypostomatic. Tetracytic (a-tetra-monocyclic, b-tetra-monocyclic and c-tetra-monocyclic) and eupara twi-monocyclic with hexa-monocyclic types of stomata were recorded in the genus.

The tetracytic type was found in fourteen species and the eupara twi-monocyclic with hexa-monocyclic type was found in only one species. The elliptical shape of the stomata was found in more species than the circular shape. The epidermal cells of the leaf were rectangular, square, polygonal to irregular.

The distribution of stomata on the leaf surface, the type of stomata and the shape of epidermal cells were taxonomically significant. These characters could be used as distinguishing characters to delimit the species in the genus.

Key words: Anatomical key, Dendrobium, epidermal cells, micromorphological character, stomatal variation

Name of Source (journal/magazine/book)::

Journal of natural History Museum, Tribhuvan University, NEPAL

Date of Publication: Vol. 30 – 2016-2018

With increasing ploidy level within a species, the number of stomata/unit area decreased and stomata size increased

Frequency, size, and distribution of stomata in triticale leaves

Sapra V. T., Hughes J. L., Sharma G. C., (1975)

In Crop Sci. 15: 356-358 –


Base, middle, and tip part of the abaxial surface of flag and two succeeding lower leaves of 13 cultivars of triticale (× Triticosecale ), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and rye (Secale cereale L.) with varying ploidy level were studied for stomatal frequency and size (guard cell length). Significant differences existed among cultivars within species, among leaves within cultivars, and among positions within leaves for both frequency and size. Hexaploid triticale ‘Rosner’ had significantly greater number of stomata/unit area than ‘Blueboy’ (wheat) while ‘Snoopy’ (rye) had significantly less. Stomatal frequency and size were negatively correlated (r = −0.80, significant at the 1% level).

‘6TA 204’ had the lowest number and largest stomata size of 6x triticales. With increasing ploidy level within a species, the number of stomata/unit area decreased and stomata size increased.

Stomata in Musa

Effect of ploidy on stomatal and other quantitative traits in plantain and banana hybrids

by Vandenhout H., Ortiz R., Vuylsteke D., Swennen R., Bai K.V. (1995)

Hilde Vandenhout, Rodomiro Ortiz, Dirk Vuylsteke, Rony Swennen, K. V. Bai,

International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Onne Station, Oyo Rd., PMB 5320, Ibadan


In Euphytica 83: 117–122 –


Ploidy polymorphism occurs in the hybrid offspring derived from interspecific crosses between triploid plantains (Musa spp. AAB group) and diploid bananas (M. acuminata). Therefore, Musa breeders are interested in the determination of ploidy and its effects on phenotypic expression of quantitative traits. The aim of this research was to examine the reliability of stomatal and other phenotypic traits to determine ploidy in segregating plantainbanana hybrid families. Stomatal density and size were significantly correlated (P<0.01) with ploidy, although the correlation coefficients were not high (r=−0.49 and r=0.47, for stomatal density and size, respectively). High density of small stomata was correlated with low ploidy level, and vice versa. However, stomatal size and density were also influenced by a significant genotype effect (P<0.001) within the same ploidy level. Ploidy had an important effect on fruit traits and plant height in the hybrids of ‘Obino l’Ewai’בCalcutta 4’, but this was not so clear in ‘Bobby Tannap’בCalcutta 4’ hybrids. ‘Obino l’Ewai’ derived tetraploids have medium to tall plants with large bunches and big fruits. Most of the tetraploids derived from ‘Bobby Tannap’ have short stature due to the gene action of the dwarf,dw, allele. Also, a few selected diploids derived from ‘Bobby Tannap’ outyielded their non-selected tetraploid full-sibs. In conclusion, chromosoem counting remains the only accurate proof of ploidy levels in Musa germplasm.

Stomata in Fruits of Damasonium (Alismataceae)

Morphological Characters of Fruits in Damasonium (Alismataceae) and Its Taxonomic Significance

by Wang Q., Zhang Z., Chen J. (1997)

Wang Qing-feng, Zhang Zhi-yun, Chen Jia-kuan,    

In J Syst Evol 35(5): 452-456 –


Macromorphological and micromorphological characters of fruits in the genus Damasonium (Alismataceae), comprising five species, were examined by stereoscope and scanning electron microscope(SEM). We found that the fruits of this genus are usually follicles with 2~6 seeds, rarely achenes with a single seed, compressed, irregularly rectangular with long-beaks at apex, or triangulate with indistinct beaks, carpodermis covered by cuticle which is again covered densely with fragmentary or granulate waxy appendage. These characters, in authors’ opinions, are of some taxonomic significance in this genus. Combined with the other characters of this genus, we consider that the treatment of D. alisma and D. stellatum as two separate species is reasonable; D. californicum is still a member in the genus Damasonium, and D. polyspermum with some special characters is different from D. alisma. A key to the species of Damasonium is given in this paper. Stomata on the carpodermis in Damasonium, which are unique in the Alismataceae, are first reported.

Stomata in Sagittaria

Further contribution to the anatomy of the Alismataceae: Sagittaria guayanensis H.B.K. ssp. lappula (D.Don) Bogin

by Govindarajalu E. (1966)

(Department of Botany, Presidency College, Madras-5)

– –


The vegetative anatomy of one South Indian species of Sagittaria (S. guayanensis ssp. lappula (D.Don) Bogin] which has not been studied before has been investigated. The studies pertain not only to the anatomy of the adult form but to that of the juvenile form. It is shown that this taxon differs from other related species of the genus in 12 important characters and
thus seems to be distinct.


In conclusion, it may be stated that this species differs from its other congeners of the genus Sagittaria by way of possessing the following specific features:

(1) Occurrence of both paracytic and tetracytic stomata in the leaf;
(2) absence of ‘H’~ or ‘U’-shaped arm palisade;

(3)less extensive system of air-cavities in the leaf;

(4) leaves with inconspicuous lateral ribs and
rather conspicuous midrib containing normally oriented single solitary bundle;

(5) mid-rib with abaxial collenchyma, the latter connecting the
bundle to the abaxial epidermis;

(6) petiole with sheating bases and circularin outline containing 2 rings of bundles;

(7) vascular bundlcs in basal sheath in two rows, the peripheral row of 10-12 smaller bundles and the central of
3 larger ones;

(8) peduncle without stomata;

(9) peduncle with a central system of 3 strands;

(10) endodermis without an obvious casparian thickening;

(11) metaxylem vessel thin-walled in root surrounded by 4-5 protoxylem units;

(12) absence of druses and raphides in all the organs.

Significant variations for stomatal density, stomatal length and width on adaxial and abaxial surface and adaxial/abaxial ratio of stomata density

Genotypic variation in stomatal traits in leaves of maize

by Prassad C. R., Lakshmi N. J., Patil A., Vanaja M., Yadav S. K., Sathish P., Mahaeshwari M., (2016)

Ch. Ram Prasad, N. Jyothi Lakshmi, Amol Patil, M. Vanaja, S. K. Yadav, P. Sathish , M. Maheswari,

In IJABPT 7(2): –



Stomatal traits viz.,stomatal density and size variation (length and width) were studied in twenty seven
maize inbred lines along with two varieties (varunand Harsha) and one hybrid (DHM-117).

Stomatal traits assessed amongst maize lines revealed significant variations for stomatal density, somatal length and width on adaxial and abaxial surface and adaxial/abaxial ratio of stomata density. This information may be utilized for physiological studies, efficient breeding and crop improvement in maize

Stomata in the Cyperaceae

Comparative Foliar Epidermal Studies of Twelve species in the Family Cyperaceae

by Odedeji E., Adedeji O. (2015)

  • E. T. Odedeji – Department of Botany, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Postal Code-A234, Nigeria.
  • O. Adedeji – Department of Botany, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Postal Code-A234, Nigeria.


In Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology 6(4): 111-123 –


The study investigated the leaf foliar epidermal characters of twelve species in the family Cyperaceae. This was with a view to finding additional characters of diagnostic or taxonomic importance. The epidermal peels were obtained by standard methods. The twelve species studied were Cyperus dilatatus Schum. & Thonn.; Cyperus difformis Linn.; Cyperus haspan Linn.; Cyperus distans Linn. (F.) Retz.; Cyperus imbricatus Linn.; Cyperus compressus Linn.; Kyllinga erecta Schumacher.; Kyllinga pumila Michx.; Kyllinga nemoralis (Forst.) Dandy ex Hutch.; Mariscus alternifolius Vahl.; Mariscus flabelliformis Kunth.; Rhynchospora corymbosa (Linn.) Britton.

Foliar epidermal peels were obtained by standard methods. Characters that were taxonomically important in delimiting the twelve species include presence or absence of prickle hair, trichomes, idioblasts, prismatic crystals and contiguous stomata on both abaxial and adaxial surfaces and Rhynchospora corymbosa was distinctly separated from the other species studied because it was the only hypostomatic species, while the others were amphistomatic, it was the only species with 1-5 rows of stomata per band and it had the highest stomata number. The distinct foliar epidermal separation of R. corymbosa validated its placement in the tribe Schoeneae with the other species studied in the tribe Cypereae.

C. distans was unique in having non–glandular, tripod-shaped, T–shaped, tricellular and three-arm shaped trichomes on the abaxial epidermal surface. The presence of prismatic crystals was also unique on the adaxial surface of C. distans and C. imbricatus. Big sized circular papillae on the intercoastal zone of C. haspan delimited it from all the other species studied. Out of the three Kyllinga species studied, idioblast was found on both abaxial and adaxial surfaces of K. erecta and K. pumila but absent in K. nemoralis.

Stomata in Gloriosa

Fig. 2. Pattern of stomata and veins in Gloriosa superba.
A – Stomatal distribution and density in abaxial epidermis
(CC – Costal cells, IC – Intercoastal Cells).
B – Paradermal section of stomatal distribution – magnified view
(AST – Anomocytic Stomata, EC – Epidermal Cells)
C – Parallel venation pattern in G. superba
(LV- Lower order vein, HV – Higher order vein, RVI – Rectangular Vein Islet).
D – Magnified view of venation pattern
(PLV- Parellel lower order vein, PHV – Perpendicular higher order vein).

Foliar Micromorphological and Architectural Studies of Glory Lily (Gloriosa superba L.) – An Important Medicinal Plant

by Manokari M., Shekhawat M. S. (2016)

M. Manokari1, Mahipal S. Shekhawat2
1 Department of Botany, K.M. Centre for Postgraduate Studies, Puducherry, India
2 Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Plant Science, M.G.G.A.C. Mahe, Puducherry, India

Fig. 3. Structure and distribution of crystals and structure of leaf margin of G. superba.
A and B – Distribution and morphology of Calcium oxalate crystals on abaxial epidermis.
C – Leaf margin with epicuticular wax (LM – Leaf Margin).
D – Magnified Bulliform cells (BC – Bulliform Cells)


In World Scientific News 59: 63-73 –

WSN 59 (2016) 63-73.pdf


Foliar micromorphological study of plants describes the distinct structure and functions of foliar tissues. The structural analysis of G. superba epidermal tissues and leaf architecture revealed the stomatal type, morphology and their orientation, cuticular wax deposition, crystal arrangement and venation pattern. The stomatal density was observed maximum on abaxial epidermis. The epidermis contained ordered stomatal pattern with anomocytic stomata. The stomatal density and stomatal index was 12.0 and 29.0 respectively. The parallel lower order veins and perpendicular higher order veins form a grid-like network of venation pattern in G. superba. Con-vallaria type of cuticular wax was observed. The results of the foliar features could be applied in systematic studies and also to predict the environmental factors responsible for the development of certain leaf parameters.

Stomata in Hordeum vulgare

F. 2. SEM micrographs at approximately 50% blade (Fig. 2A, B) or sheath (Fig. 2C, D) length of mature L1 of ‘Himalaya’ barley. Fig. 2A
shows the different cell types of the adaxial blade epidermis. The cells are grouped together as (a) sr and lc, (b) cells over the veins, and (c) cells
between veins. The cells over the veins could not be characterized according to vein types since the replicas show epidermal details only. Bar¯
100 µm. Fig. 2B shows the abaxial blade epidermis. There are stomatal rows changing files on either side of the cells lying between veins. When
lc and bvn cells occurred within the same file, the bvn cells were always progressively shorter with increasing proximity to the lc cells (arrows).
Bar¯200 µm. For Fig. 2C and D the cell types could not be labelled since these surface replicas do not show the position of veins. Bar¯
100 µm. Fig. 2C is the adaxial surface showing only one stoma. Fig. 2D is the abaxial epidermis showing stomata and sclerenchyma and

Characterization of the Leaf Epidermis of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ‘Himalaya’)

by Wenzel C. L., Chandler P. M., Cunningham R. B., Passioura J. B. (1997)


  • Cooperative Research Centre for Plant Science, GPO Box 475, Canberra, ACT 2601,
  • † CSIRO Division of
    Plant Industry, GPO Box 1600, Canberra, ACT 2601 and
  • ‡ Statistics Department, Australian National University,
    Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia


F. 1. Diagrammatic representation of a cross section through the
blade of L1 showing different epidermal cell types. The majority of cells
were initially defined as over veins (ov), between veins (bv), stomatal
rows (sr) with lateral cells (lc), sclerenchyma (sc), and edge cells. Cells
over and between veins were subdivided according to adjacent cells:
bvn and ovn cells are next to lc cells; and ovs cells are adjacent to
sclerenchyma. The cells over the veins would be further characterized
according to their position over small (S), large (L) or midrib (MR)
veins. The bv and bvn cells on the adaxial surface are bulliform cells.
Not drawn to scale.7+7, Stomatal row (sr) and the lateral cells (lc);
^, cells between vein (bvn, bv); D, cells over veins (ovn, ovs, ov); E,
sclerenchyma (sc); , edge cells.

In Annals of Botany 79: 41–46


The cell types of mature leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ‘Himalaya’) are described. Blade and sheath epidermal
cell types were characterized according to their position relative to the veins, stomatal rows, and sclerenchyma cells.
Cells over veins were further classified according to the size of vein. Cell lengths of the approx. 15 different cell types
ranged from approximately 50 µm to over 2 mm. The principal difference in cell length between the abaxial and
adaxial surfaces was seen for cells lying between the veins; on the adaxial surface these cells (bulliform cells) were
about 200 µm long whereas those on the abaxial surface were over 2 mm in length. Total file number across the blade
width was the same on the abaxial and adaxial surfaces. However, there were more cells lying over veins than between
veins on the adaxial surface, and Šice Šersa for the abaxial surface. The detailed description of leaf epidermal cell types
of barley in this study provides the basis for comparison with mutants which differ in leaf length