Size, distribution of stomata and number of subsidiary cells in Musa

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Anatomy and morphology character of five Indonesian banana cultivars (Musa spp.) of different ploidy level

by Sumardi I., Wulandari M. (2010)


Faculty of Biology, Gadjah Mada University (UGM), Jl. Teknika Selatan, Sekip Utara, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia


in B IO D I V E R S IT A S ISSN: 1412-033X – 11(4): 167-175 – DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d110401 –


In Indonesia there are many cultivars of banana, and some of them produce edible fruits. Beside their morphology, the character which necessary as a tool for classification is anatomical character.

The aim of this research were to describe the anatomical character and morphology of fives Indonesian banana cultivars based on their level of ploidy. The cultivars were collected from Banana Germplasm Plantation, Yogyakarta District, Indonesia. The samples of roots, rhizome, and leaf were collected from five banana cultivars i.e.: Musa acuminata cv Penjalin, M. balbisiana cv Kluthuk warangan, M. acuminata cv Ambon warangan, M. paradisiaca cv Raja nangka, and M. paradisiaca cv Kluthuk susu. For anatomy observation samples were prepared using paraffin method, stained with 1% safranin in 70% ethanol.

To observe the structure of stomata and epidermis surface, slide were prepared using modification of whole mount method. Slides were observed using Olympus BHB microscope completed with Olympus camera BM10A. Stem and leaf morphology character of diploid level (AA and BB genome) is different with triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome). Anatomy and morphology character of root and rhizome of banana in diploid level (AA and BB genome) and triploid level (AAA, AAB, and ABB genome) is quite similar. Distribution of stomata is found in leaf and pseudostem.

Stomata is found in adaxial and abaxial epidermis layer. The size of guard cells in triploid cultivars was longer than that diploid cultivars. The root composed of epidermis layer, cortex and cylinder vascular of five cultivar’s root show anomalous structure. Rhizome consist of peripheric and centre zone. Anatomically, this was no differences in the rhizome structure among five banana cultivars. The row of vascular bundles acts as demarcation area between peripheric and central zone. In the cultivar with BB genome (diploid) and ABB genome (triploid) the row of vascular bundle was not found. The differences of leaf anatomy were base on: size and number of stomata distribution, number of subsidiary cells, number of hypodermal layers, structure and number of parenchyma palisade, size of airspace in petiole and mesophyll and the vascular bundle structure.


Stomata in Agapanthus (Amaryllidaceae)

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Figure 2: SEM micrographs of adaxial (a, b) and abaxial (c, d) epidermal cells of A. praecox subsp. praecox (EC = epidermal cells).


Micromorphological Characterization of the Leaf and Rhizome of Agapanthus praecox subsp. praecox Willd. (Amaryllidaceae)

by Sharaibi O. J., Afolayan A. J. (2017)

Medicinal Plants and Economic Development Research Centre, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa


in Journal of Botany Volume 2017 – ID 3075638 –


Agapanthus praecox subsp. praecox Willd. is a highly valued medicinal plant of family Amaryllidaceae. The genus Agapanthus has been difficult to classify into distinct species due to broad similar morphology of its members. Present taxonomic confusion in this genus and numerous medicinal uses of A. praecox necessitate its proper identification.

The leaf and rhizome microcharacters were studied using scanning electron, light microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Epidermal cells are polygonal having wavy anticlinal walls with mean adaxial length of  μm and mean abaxial length of  μm.

The leaf is amphistomatic with anomocytic stomata with mean pore length of  μm on the adaxial and  μm on the abaxial surface. The mean stomata densities on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces were  mm2 and  mm2.

Trichomes and secretory ducts are absent on both surfaces. EDX spectroscopy showed that beryllium, carbon, oxygen, sodium, and silicon were present on both epidermal surfaces and rhizome while nitrogen, aluminum, and chlorine were detected only on the adaxial surface and sulphur was detected only in the rhizome.

Stomata in some species of genus Arum

Photo credit Google – Arum alpinum cylindraceum –


Length and width of guard cells and variation in the appearance of stomata pores in some species of genus Arum from the Eastern Slavonia and Baranya Region

by Sabo M., Lajdes T., Bačić T., Grgic L., Lendel A. (2004)

1Faculty of Food Technology, J. J. Strossmayer University 31 000 Osijek, Croatia 

T. Lajdes, 2Department of Biology, Faculty of Education, J. J. Strossmayer University 31 000 Osijek, Croatia

 3Department of Biology, Faculty of Education, J. J. Strossmayer University 31 000 Osijek, Croatia

4Department of Biology, Faculty of Education, J. J. Strossmayer University 31 000 Osijek, Croatia

Faculty of Education, J. J. Strossmayer University 31 000 Osijek, Croatia



in Acta Botanica Hungarica – Published Online: July 22, 2005 – –

Length and width of guard cells and variation in the appearance of stomata pores in the following Arum species: Arum italicum Mill., Arum maculatum var. maculatum L. and Arum maculatum var. immaculatum L. at Zablaće and Normanci location, and Arum alpinum var. pannonicum Terpo., Arum alpinum var. intermedium Schur. in Bilje at the eastern Slavonia and Baranya region were investigated.

With regard to guard cells length and width and variation in the appearance of stomata pores, stomata of certain Arum species are considered to be of larger dimensions (≯38 µm).

Arum species grown at Zablaće had the longest and widest guard cells as well as the greatest variation in the appearance of stomata pores, followed by those at Normanci, whereas species at Bilje location had the lowest values.

The average length and width of the guard cells and variation in the appearance of stomata pores were larger at the lower than at the upper epidermis among each examined Arum species at each location.

A significant difference in guard cells length and width and variation in the appearance of stomata pores at both upper and lower epidermis was determined for Zablaće and Normanci location, whereas there was no significant difference in those parameters at Bilje location.

Stomata of Monocots and Dicots

Figure 1: Maize Stomata
Image Courtesy:

1. “Maize stomata” by Umberto Salvagnin (CC BY 2.0) via Flickr
2. “Stomata” by AJC1 (CC BY-SA 2.0) via Flickr

Difference Between Stomata of Monocot and Dicot Plants

by Lakna (2017)

Lakna, a graduate in Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, is a Molecular Biologist and has a broad and keen interest in the discovery of nature related things

in Pediaa –

Figure 2: Dicot Stomata

Main Difference – Stomata of Monocot vs Dicot Plants

Monocot and dicot plants contain stomata in their leaves as well as in their stem. The major role of stomata is to facilitate the gas exchange. They also facilitate transpiration, which helps the absorption of water from the soil and the transport of water through the xylem. The size of the stomata is controlled by a pair of guard cells. The main difference between stomata of monocot and dicot plants is that the guard cells of the monocots are dumbbell-shaped whereas the guard cells of dicot plants are bean-shaped.

Key Areas Covered

1. Stomata of Monocot Plants
– Definition, Guard cells, Distribution of Stomata
2. Stomata of Dicot Plants
– Definition, Guard cells, Distribution of Stomata
3. What are the Similarities Between Stomata of Monocot and Dicot Plants
– Outline of Common Features
4. What is the Difference Between Stomata of Monocot and Dicot Plants
– Comparison of Key Differences

Abnormal stomata in colchicine-treated leaves of Tradescantia



Spaltöffnungsapparat-Anomalien colchicinierter Tradescantia Blätter

by Weber F. (1943)

Friedl Weber, Aus dem Pflanzenphysiologischen Institute der Universität Graz


in Protoplasma 37: 556-565 –

  • Der Spalt6ffnungsapparat von Tradescantia bietet mit den die beiden Schlie6zellen umgebenden lateralen und polaren Nebenzellen ein charakte- ristisches und durchaus konstantes Bild (Fig. 1) (Strasburger 1866, Grav is Fig. 1. Normal ausgebildeter Spaltöffnungsapparat von Tradescantia iluminensis. 1898).
  • Gelegentlich kommen infolge von Blattverletzungen anomale Spaltöffnungen vor (Kt ister 1925). Solche hat vor kurzem Drawer t (1942) ftir die Niederblättter von Tradescantia virginica beschrieben, an hSher ara Stengel inserierten Blätttern sind sie jedenfalls nur selten und vereinzelt anzutreffen. Drawer t betont, dass ftir die Lösung entwicklungsphysiologischer Frae eine ,,kiinstliche Hervorrufung von anomalen Spaltöffnungen” von Wichtigkeit

Stomata in Aloe section Pictae (Xanthorrhoeaceae)

Photo credit Google – Aloe macrocarpa –


Taxonomic significance of leaf surface morphology in Aloe section Pictae (Xanthorrhoeaceae)

by Olwen M. G., Simmonds M. S. J., Smith G. F., Van Wijk A. E. (2009)


1 Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Surrey TW9 3AB, UK
2 Department of Plant Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa
3 South African National Biodiversity Institute, Private Bag 101, Pretoria 0002, South Africa



in Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 160: 418–428 –


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Figure 1. Scanning electron micrograph of stomatal complex on adaxial leaf surface of Aloe umfoloziensis in transverse section: ec, epistomatal chamber; g, guard cell; i, inner cuticular ledge; l, lobe; o, outer cuticular ledge; s, subsidiary cell; sc, substomatal chamber. Scale bar, 10 mm.



Leaf surface morphology was analysed in 32 species representing the maculate species complex (the poorly resolved section Pictae) in the genus Aloe (Xanthorrhoeaceae).

Few comparative morphological data are available for the complex. Leaf surface and stomatal characters observed by scanning electron microscopy show taxonomically significant interspecific variation. Most species are characterized by irregularly outlined, four- to six-sided epidermal cells, the periclinal walls of which are flat and embellished with micropapillae and the anticlinal walls of which are indicated by channels on the leaf surface.

The outer stomatal pore is typically sunken or plane and surrounded by four lobes on the leaf surface that may overarch the epistomatal chamber. The guard cells have distinct outer and inner stomatal ledges.

Two geographical groups, comprising southern and east African species, are distinguishable by their leaf surface morphology. These characters are diagnostic in A. ellenbeckii, A. prinslooi and A. suffulta and support changes in the delimitation of A. greatheadii, A. macrocarpa and A. swynnertonii.

Stomatal density and distribution in Agrostis

Photo credit: Google

Agrostis canina L. subsp. canina

Stomatal density and distribution in Agrostis as influenced by species, cultivars and leaf blade surface and position.

by Shearman R. C., Beard J. B. (1972)

in Crop Science 12: 822-823 – doi:10.2135/cropsci1972.0011183X001200060031x –


Stomatal density and distribution were determined among species of Agrostis grown under the same environmental and cultural conditions. The species studied were A. canina L., A. palustria Huds., and A. tenuis Sibth.

The Stomatal density varied significantly among the three species and among the five cultivars of A. palustris.

Density and distribution of stomata also varied with the leaf blade surface and position. The adaxial leaf surface of ‘Penncross’ creeping bentgrass had approximately three times the Stomatal density of the abaxial surface.

Stomata were distributed in parallel rows on the adaxial leaf blade surface and were scattered throughout the abaxial surface.

Stomatal density was greatest on the youngest leaves.