Stomatal development in rice

Photo credit: Google

Rice (Oryza sativa)

The development of stomata and other epidermal cells on the rice leaves

by Luo L., Zhou W.-Q., Liu P., Li C.-X., Hou S.-W.(2012)

L. LuoW. -Q. ZhouP. LiuC. -X. LiS. -W. Hou

L. Luo, Lanzhou University, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou, P.R. China


in Biologia Plantarum 56(3): 521-527 – DOI10.1007/s10535-012-0045-y –


In the leaves of rice (Oryza sativa), stomatal initials arose from two asymmetric cell divisions and a symmetric division. Guard mother cells (GMCs) and long cells in stomatal files (LCSs) were formed through the first asymmetric division of the precursor cell of GMCs. Subsidiary cells (SCs) were produced by the second asymmetric division of subsidiary mother cells or LCSs. Following SC formation, GMCs divided once symmetrically to generate guard cells and then differentiated terminally to form mature stomata.

The developmental patterns of long cells, prickle hairs and short cells (phellem cells and silica cells) were also examined. Interestingly, we found that the different developmental stages of stomata and epidermal cells occurred in the similar location of immature leaves of the same phyllotaxis. In addition, two spacing patterns (“one stoma, one long cell” and “one short cell row”) probably exist in rice leaves.


Seed coat stomata of Iris

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Iris giganticaerulea (Giant blue iris) #36759


Seed coat stomata of several Iris species

by Wang L., Hasenstein K. H. (2016)

Ling WangKarl H. Hasenstein

Ling Wang, College of Landscape Architecture, Northeast Forest University, Harbin, 150040, China

Karl H. Hasenstein, Biology Department, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Lafayette, Louisiana 70504-2451, United States


Iridoug seed pod
Photo credit Google – Iris seed pod –

in Flora 224: 24-29 – DOI10.1016/j.flora.2016.07.002 –


Seeds typically do not have stomata on their coats.

Because some Iris species contain stomata, we studied those to characterize frequency and deduce possible stomatal functions in comparison with leaf stomata.

We used scanning electron microscopy and statistical means to describe form and number of open versus closed stomata.

Of the seven examined Iris species, I. laevigata Fisch., I. halophila Pall Walter and I. pseudacorus L. did not have stomata; I. ensata Thunb., I. mandshurica Maxim., I. dichotoma Pall, and I. giganticaerulea Small contained stomata in seed coats.

Open stomata of these four species amounted to 82, 86, 90, and 24%, respectively. Stomata differed in shape and size; their frequency varied and was much lower than on leaves.

Stomata of I. giganticaerulea varied in size and shape and were round on seed coats and fruits but rectangular on leaves.

The diversity of the stomata distribution, shape, and state indicates some physiological significance that may be relevant for the formation of the seed, composition of the seeds coat, dormancy, and water uptake during germination.


Stomatal distribution, frequency and number on the wheat inflorescence

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Triticum aestivum


Screen Shot 2017-09-19 at 22.51.15


Stomatal frequency and distribution on the inflorescence of Triticum aestivum

by Teare I. D., Law A. G., Peterson C. J. (1972)

I. D. TEARE (1), A. G. LAW (2), and G. F. SIMMONS (2)

1 Evapotranspiration Laboratory, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66502, USA

2 Department of Agronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Wash. 99163, USA

in Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 1972, 52(1): 89-94,


Stomatal distribution and frequency on the lemma, palea, glume, and awn were determined by counting the stomata per unit area on the various components of the wheat spikelet.

Stomata occurred in rows on the abaxial surface of the lemmas and glumes. The portion of the lemma covered by a glume or adjacent lemma did not have stomata.

A single row of stomata extended down each side of the crease of the palea.

Each awn had two parallel rows of stomata at the base; the rows spiraled up the awn and were reduced to one row at the tip.

We found that inflorescence stomata ranged from 15000 to 60000; awn stomata from 100 to 13000; palea stomata, from 2000 to 10000; lemma stomata, from 6000 to 22000; and glume stomata, from 6000 to 20000.

Number of stomata per inflorescence represented 3–16% of the flag-leaf stomata/culm.

The characterization of 19 cultivars of Triticum aestivum in relation to stomata numbers per inflorescence shows a wide range of variation that may be useful in future breeding programs.

Uncommon wall thickening in stomata in Zingiberaceae (monocots)

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Zingiber officinale – Ginger


An uncommon wall thickening of guard cells

by Raju E. C., Patel J. D., Shah J. J. (1975)

E. C. Raju,

Jeelna Dhanji Patel, Curtin University, Bentley, WA, Australia

J. J. Shah,


in Ann. Bot. 39: 125-127 –


Four species of the family Zingiberaceae, Curcuma amada Roxb., C. domestica Valet., Zingiber officinale Rose, Elettaria cardamomum Mat.; one species of the family Cannaceae, Canna indica L.; one species of the family Rubiaceae, Coffea arabica L.; and one species of the family Theaceae, Camellia sinensis L. showed the presence of wall thickening at the polar ends of the guard cells.

This thickening may be restricted to the outer wall at the polar regions or may also be extended to the common inner cell wall (not the part of the inner wall abutting the stomatal pore).

In C. sinensis the wall thickening may be restricted only to the common inner wall. The thick walls are PAS-positive.

Adult leaves of Nymphaea are epistomatic

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Folgeblätter von Nymphaea tetragona sind epistomatisch

Weber F., Kenda G. (1953)

Friedl Weber, Griseldis Kenda

in Ost. bot. Z. 100. 256-258 – DOI: 10.1007/BF02230801 –

Die Jugendblätter von Nymphaea tetragona sind astomatiseh, die Folgeblätter epistomatisch.

Stomata and adjoining interstomatals in Poaceae



Taxonomic variation in stomatal insertion among grass species

by Watson L., Johnston C. R. (1978)

in Aust. J. Bot. 26(2): 2345-238  – DOI: 10.1071/BT9780235 –

Abaxial leaf epidermal preparations from 228 grass spp. (176 genera) reveal that in most festucoids, the guard cells are clearly overlapped by the adjoining interstomatals.
In nearly all non-festucoids, the guard cells are either flush with the interstomatals or slightly overlap them.