Influence of stomatal characteristics on yield

Influence of stomatal characteristics on yield and yield attributes of rice

Sarwar A. K. M. G., Karim M. A., Rana S. M. A. M. (2013)

A. K. M. Golam Sarwar, M. Abdul Karim, S. M. A. Masud Rana,

Department of Crop Botany, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh


J. Bangladesh Agril. Univ. 11(1): 47–52 – ISSN 1810-3030 –


Stomatal distribution is found to be an important trait of rice cultivars for increasing yield. A total of six rice cultivars,three from each of inbred and hybrid cultivars, were used to study stomatal distribution on the leaf epidermis and its influence on yield and yield attributing characters of rice during the Boro season.

The hybrid cultivars exhibited superiority in respect of number of stomata, length and breadth of stomatal apparatus. They also produced longer panicle, higher number of filled grains panicle–1, heavier grains and finally, higher grain yield ha–1 than inbreds.

The higher grain yield of the hybrid cultivars might be due to higher number of large sized stomata causing higher photosynthetic efficacy, although, they produced relatively lower number of effective tillers hill–1

Some guard cells of the neighboring stomata form a “connection strand” between their dorsal cell walls in Amaryllidaceae representatives

Stomata in Close Contact: The Case of Pancratium maritimum L. (Amaryllidaceae)

Saridis P., Georgiadou X., Shtein I., Pouris J., Panteris E., Rhizopoulou S., Constantinidis T., Giannoutsou E., Adamakis I.-D.S. (2022)

Pavlos Saridis 1, Xenia Georgiadou 1-2, Ilana Shtein 3, John Pouris 1, Emmanuel Panteris 4, Sophia Rhizopoulou 1, Theophanis Constantinidis 2, Eleni Giannoutsou 1, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S. Adamakis 1,

1 Section of Botany, Department of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Athens, Greece
2 Section of Ecology and Systematics, Department of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15784 Athens, Greece
3 Eastern Region Resarch and Development Center, Milken Campus, Ariel 40700, Israel
4 Department of Botany, School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece


Plants 11: 3377 –


Stomata in Iridaceae

Vaikos N. P. (1987) – Foliar epidermal studies in some Iridaceae – Indian J. Bot. 10: 59-64 –


Observations on the leaf epidermal structures of nine species belonging to Tigridia, Cypella, Aristea, Freesia, Watsonia, Acidanthera, Tritonia and Gladiolus are presented.

The stomata are anomocytic. The epidermal cells are polygonal, short or rectangular and longitudinally elongated. The cell walls are straight or sinuous. The cuticular papillae occur on epidermal cells in Aristea, Freesia, Tritonia, Gladiolus and Watsonia iridifolia var. O’Brienii. Elongated cuticular ridges are noted in Cypella. Surface ornamentation of epidermis is considered as an ecological adaptation.

Anomalous stomata like contiguous stomata, degenerated guard cells, cytoplasmic connections, stoma with unequal guard cells are also observed. Discussion of the epidermal features and a key for distinction of the taxa based on epidermal characters are presented.

Stomata in Iridaceae

Foliar epidermis and development of stomata in Iridaceae

Pande P. C. (1980)


Acta Botanica Indica 8(2): 256-259 – ISSN/ISBN: 0379-508X –


The foliar epidermis and development of stomata in 24 spp. of Iridaceae was studied. In surface view the epidermal cells are elongated with straight or oblique anticlinal walls except for Freesia, Gladiolus, Sparaxis and Tritonia, where the lower epidermal cells have sinuous or undulated walls.

In Gladiolus, Sparaxis and Tritonia the radial walls are papillose. The stomata are of ranunculaceous (anomocytic) type. Prominent cytoplasmic connections are present in between the guard cells of two adjacent stomata in Crocus. The development of stomata is of perigenous type. The epidermal characters appeared to be of limited value in the taxonomy of the family.

Stomata in grasses of Pakistan

Figure 1. Different foliar micromorphological characters stomata, trichomes, silica bodies can be seen on both abaxial and adaxial surfaces at light (40X) and SEM in Aegilops cylindrica (1,2, 13 and 14), Festuca arundinaceae (3, 4, 15 and 16), Hordeum murinum (5, 6, 17 and 18), Lamarckia aurea (7, 8, 19 and 20), Lolium persicum (9, 10, 21 and 22) and Poa annua (11, 12, 23 and 24) .

Comparative leaf and pollen micromorphology on some Grasses taxa (Poaceae) distributed in Pakistan

Khan R., Abidin S. Z. U., Mumtaz A. S., Jamsheed S., Ullah H. (2017)

Raees Khan1, Sheikh Zain Ul Abidin1, Abdul Samad Mumtaz1, Shayan Jamsheed1, Hadayat Ullah2,

1 Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid- i- Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan
2 Department of Botany, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan


International Journal of Nature and Life Sciences (IJNLS) 1(2): 72-82 –
e-ISSN: 2602-2397 – ISSN: 2602-2478 –

The Scanning electron and light microscopy foliar epidermal and Palynological studies were found very helpful in the identification at species levels. The key based on silica bodies, microhairs, macrohairs, hooks, papillae, prickles, stomatal index and stomatal densities are useful in the robust identification of closely related species.

Stomata and the relationship between environmental factors and the leaf epidermis characteristics

Leaf epidermis characteristics of the main grassland monocotyledonous plant species on the Tibetan Plateau (青藏高原草地主要单子叶植物的叶表面特征)

Hu X., Ji C., An L. (2016)

College of Sciences and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong Shaanxi,College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Medical and Health Analysis Center, Peking University

Acta Ecologica Sinica 36: 6465-6474 – DOI:10.5846/stxb201503300612


The characteristics of the leaf epidermis of the main monocotyledonous plant species from grasslands on the Tibetan Plateau were investigated using optical microscopy. The differences in stoma quantitative indices among plant species was studied using one-way ANOVA and the relationships between stoma quantitative indices and environmental factors, such as altitude, and average temperature and precipitation in the growing season, were analyzed using the Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis.

The results indicated that:

(1) The main monocotyledonous plant species on the grassland shared many special leaf epidermis characteristics, due to long-term adaptation to the plateau environment. These characteristics included:

(a) Two types of cells on the leaf epidermis:long cells were generally rectangular and closely arranged in rows; and short cells were rectangular, square, suborbiculate, or saddle-shaped, and their distribution was randomly scattered, solitary, or twinned among species.

(b) Most stomas were distributed in the lower epidermis and belonged to the single-sided type. This pattern might play an important role not only in maintaining high CO2 assimilation rates but also to limit water evaporation and avoid physiological drought.

(c) Morphologies of stomatal apparatus, guard cells, and subsidiary cells showed obvious polymorphism. Guard cells were nearly square, half-moon, or dumbbell-shaped. Subsidiary cells were low-dome, dome, or high-dome shaped. The stomatal apparatus appeared in an ellipse, wide-ellipse, or intimate circle.

(d) The stomatal apparatus was paracytic, containing two guard and two subsidiary cells, and was further aligned into stomatal bands with equal or unequal intervals. Subsidiary cells were surrounded by and parallel to guard cells. (2) Average stomatal density (SD), length (SL), and index (SI) were (194.07±4.74) units/mm2, (34.50±0.28) μm, and (18.13±0.31)%, respectively. The coefficient of variation (CV) of SD (53.02%) was largest, followed by those of SI (37.23%), and SL (17.94%). There were significant differences among species in these three stoma quantitative indices (P<0.01). (3) Stoma quantitative indices of monocotyledonous plants of grasslands on the Tibetan Plateau were distinctly correlated with environmental factors. Altitude was significantly associated with stomatal characteristics of the leaf epidermis (P<0.01). Average temperature in the growing season had a weak positive correlation with SL (P<0.05), and a notable negative correlation with SD and SI (P<0.01). Precipitation in the growing season was significantly negatively correlated to SI (P<0.01). Specifically, SLSD, and SI increased with increasing altitude; SL decreased, and SD and SI increased as average temperature in the growing season decreased; SL increased, and SD and SI decreased with reduced precipitation in the growing season. (4) The linear regression equations of SLSD, and SI from altitude, average temperature, and precipitation in the growing season were Y=0.005X1+0.878X2-0.021X3+12.278; Y=0.046X1-11.688X2+0.466X3-46.391; and Y=0.003X1-0.363X2+0.009X3+7.394, respectively, which were extremely significant (P<0.01). The relationship between environmental factors and the leaf epidermis characteristics showed that the coefficient of SD was the largest (R=0.690), followed by those of SL (R=0.557), and SI (R=0.342).

Stomata in trees of the Magnoliidae in Chile

Características de la epidermis foliar de árboles chilenos. I. Subclase Magnoliidae. Chile

Barrera E., Mesa I (1992)

Barrera Elizabeth, Mesa Ines,

Sección Botánica, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Casilla 787, Santiago. Chile.


Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural 43: 29-39 –

Stomata in Dioscorea zingiberensis

Comparison on microstructures of epidermis and stomatal apparatus of leaf between tetraploid and diploid of Dioscorea zingiberensis

Jiang D.-S., Zhou P.-H. , Liangzeng E.-N., Li L. (2008)

JIANG Dao-Song1,2, ZHOU Pu-Hua1,2, LIANGZENG En-Ni1, LI Luan1,

  1. College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
  2. Hunan Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, Changsha 410128, China


Guihaia 28(4): 427-430 –

Morphology and microstructure of epidermis and stomatal apparatus in guard cell of sunny leaves and shady ones between diploid and tetraploid Dioscorea zingiberensis have been comparatively studied.

The results are as follows:there are distinctly differences on their morphology and microstructure between diploid and tetraploid,sunny leaf and shady one. There are two morphological types of epidermal cells: regular polygon epidermis and irregular meander configuration ones. The stomatal apparatus,which exist only in under epidermis,is irregular type of stomatal apparatus as that of typical dicotyle. The mean densities of epidermic cells and stomatal apparatus,stomatal index of tetraploid,which are 476.82±6.87 cells·mm-2,78.22±3.1 units·mm-2 and 14.11 respectively,is smaller by 4.60%,17.95% and 11.98% respectively than that of diploid. But the even length and width of stomatal apparatus,width of guard cell of the former,which are 32.78±2.09μm,26.07±1.55μm,9.63±1.14μm respectively,is larger by 10.73%,3.90% and 18.01% than that of the latter respectively,and the difference is all at extremely distinct level. That of shady leaf of the former is larger by 5.77%,6.00% and 8.72% respectively than that of sunny one,and the latter by 1.72%,1.74% and 2.41% respectively. The chloroplast numbers in guard cell of stoma of tetraploid are 23.93±3.19,74.00% more than that of diploid. The densities of epidermic cell and stoma,stomatal index,size of stoma,chloroplast numbers in guard cell,especially the width of guard cell can be used to identify the tetraploid and diploid. The leaf structure of tetraploid is good for high yield.

Stomata in Pleione (Orchidaceae)

Leaf epidermal micro-morphology and taxonomic
significance of 15 species of Pleione

Wang Z.-X., Zhang H., Chen L., Zhao Y.-M., Zhai J.-W., Chen S.-P., Wu S.-S. (2020)

WANG Zhongxuan1, 2, ZHANG Hao2, CHEN Lei1, 3, ZHAO Yamei1, 3, ZHAI Junwen1, 3, CHEN Shipin1, 2, WU Shasha1, 3,


Acta Bot. Boreali-Occident. Sin. 40: 1527–1538 –


In order to solve the taxonomic problems of Orchidaceae Pleione and explore the significance of leaf ultrastructure in taxonomy, this study uses scanning electron microscopy to investigate 15 mature leaf epidermal ultra features of 15 Pleione species such as cell boundaries, cuticle and stomatal apparatus restrict and et al, and to determine their taxonomic significance.

(1) Cell boundaries, epidermal cell wax quality, stratum corneum texture, stomatal distribution, wax around the stomatal, inner edge of the outer arch of the stomatal, keratinization, relative height of the stomatal, epidermal cell length, epidermal cell area and guard cell length, these 9 indicators of guard cell area are of great value and significance for the classification of this genus.

(2) Using these indicators could distinguish S. Humiles S. Pleione and P. bulbocodioides complex.

(3) The cluster analysis clustered 15 species of Pleione into four branches, which is basically consistent with the results of traditional taxonomy and molecular systematics. P. × taliensis Cribb & Butterfield has many indicators same with P. yunnanensis (Rolfe) Rolfe and P. forrestii Schltr., their relationship need further research.

Stomata in Triticum aestivum, Secale cereale and their amphiploids

Stomatal size, frequency and distribution in Triticum aestivum, Secale cereale and their amphiploids –

Singh S., Sethi G. S. (1995)



Cereal Res. Commun. 23: 103-108 –