Stomata in Allium (Alliaceae)

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Leaf epidermal anatomy of selected Allium species, Family Alliaceae from Pakistan

by Yousaf Z., Shinwari Z. K., Ashgar R., Parveen A. (2008)

ZUBAIDA YOUSAF1 , ZABTA KHAN SHINWARI2 , REHANA ASGHAR1 AND ANJUM PARVEEN3

1 Department of Botany, University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi, Pakistan

2 Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat and

3 Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

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in Pak. J. Bot., 40(1): 77-90 –

http://www.esalq.usp.br/lepse/imgs/conteudo_thumb/Leaf-epidermal-anatomy-of-selected-allium-species–family-alliaceae-from-pakistan.pdf

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Abstract

Leaf epidermal anatomy of the selected Allium species showed variation in size and shape of stomatal cells, stomatal cavity, micro and macro hairs, trichomes, silica bodies and long cells.

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Leaf epidermal anatomy prooved a significant tool for the resolution of taxonomic confusions of the Allium species. Allium consanguineum had most diverse leaf epidermal anatomy. This species had longest stomatal cells (6-14 µm) and silca bodies (6-14 µm). Presence of micro hairs is an important distinguishing character for A. carolianum, the length of micro hairs varies from 150-200 µm. Only dumb-bell shaped silica bodies were observed in 6 different species viz., A. dolichostylum, A. borszczewii, A. micranthum, A. consanguinem, A. stocksianum and A. stoliczki. Trichomes were present in A. barszczewksi, A. borszczowii, A. micranthum, A. lamondae, A. miserbile, A. longicollum, A. gilli and A. dolichostylum,

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Cluster analysis based on anatomical characters revealed that 18 species of the genus Allium were divided into 2 main clusters at the phylogenetic distance of 79%. Lower order classification of the genus Allium on the basis of anatomical characters is entirely different from morphological classification.

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Stomata in Fritillaria (Liliaceae)

Fig. 90. Illustration of stomatal pole. Fig. 91. Stomatal orientation in Fritillaria.

 

Comparative morphology of the leaf epidermis in Fritillaria (Liliaceae) from China

by Wang Q., Zhou S.-D., Deng X.-Y., Zheng Q., He X.-J. (2009)

QIANG WANG, SONG-DONG ZHOU, XIAO-YAN DENG, QI ZHENG, XING-JIN HE,

College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China

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in Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 160(1): 93–109 –

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00855.x

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Characteristics of adaxial epidermal cells (light microscopy). Ordinary polygonal-shaped cells. Fig. 1. Fritillaria sichuanica. Fig. 2. Fritillaria cirrhosa. Fig. 3. Fritillaria taipaiensis. Fig. 4. Fritillaria crassicaulis. Fig. 5. Fritillaria sinica. Fig. 6. Fritillaria walujewi. Fig. 7. Fritillaria thunbergii. Fig. 8. Fritillaria przewalskii. Fig. 9. Fritillaria unibracteata. Fig. 10. Fritillaria dajinensis. Fig. 11. Fritillaria verticillata, with stomata present. Fig. 12. Fritillaria tortifolia, with stomata present. Scale bar, 50 µm.

Abstract

The leaf epidermis of 16 species and one putative species of Fritillaria was examined using light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

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Characteristics of epidermal cells (light microscopy). Figs 13–17. Adaxial. Figs 18–24. Abaxial. Fig. 13. Ordinary polygonal-shaped cells of Fritillaria delavayi with stomata present. Fig. 14. Ordinary irregularly shaped cells of Fritillaria pallidiflora with stomata present. Fig. 15. Ordinary polygonal-shaped cells of Fritillaria anhuiensis. Fig. 16. Ordinary irregularly shaped cells of Fritillaria davidi. Fig. 17. Ordinary polygonal-shaped cells of the putative species. Fig. 18. Ordinary polygonal-shaped cells of Fritillaria sichuanica. Fig. 19. Ordinary polygonal-shaped cells of Fritillaria cirrhosa. Fig. 20. Ordinary polygonal-shaped cells of Fritillaria taipaiensis. Fig. 21. Ordinary polygonal-shaped cells of Fritillaria crassicaulis. Fig. 22. Ordinary polygonal-shaped cells of Fritillaria sinica. Fig. 23. Ordinary polygonal-shaped cells of Fritillaria walujewi. Fig. 24. Ordinary polygonal-shaped cells of Fritillaria thunbergii. Scale bar, 50 µm.

The results showed that the stomatal and other epidermal features were constant within species.

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Characteristics of abaxial epidermal cells (light microscopy). Fig. 25. Ordinary polygonal-shaped cells of Fritillaria przewalskii. Fig. 26. Ordinary polygonal-shaped cells of Fritillaria unibracteata. Fig. 27. Ordinary polygonal-shaped cells of Fritillaria dajinensis. Fig. 28. Ordinary polygonal-shaped cells of Fritillaria verticillata. Fig. 29. Ordinary polygonal-shaped cells of Fritillaria tortifolia. Fig. 30. Ordinary polygonal-shaped cells of Fritillaria delavayi. Fig. 31. Ordinary irregularly shaped cells of Fritillaria pallidiflora. Fig. 32. Ordinary irregularly shaped cells of Fritillaria anhuiensis. Fig. 33. Ordinary irregularly shaped cells of Fritillaria davidi. Fig. 34. Ordinary polygonal-shaped cells of the putative species. Scale bar, 50 µm. Fig. 35. Narrow elliptical guard cells of Fritillaria sichuanica. Fig. 36. Narrow elliptical guard cells of Fritillaria cirrhosa. Scale bar, 10 µm.

Epidermal cells of Fritillaria under LM were usually polygonal and anticlinal cell walls were straight or curved. In a few species they were irregular, with sinuous anticlinal cell walls. The cuticular membrane of Fritillaria was usually striated, and the wax ornamentations were flaked, granular or concomitant. Based on leaf epidermal characteristics, the subdivision of Fritillaria is discussed, and the statistical t-test method was used to ascertain the significance level of the differences in the stomata of each species.

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Characteristics of abaxial epidermal cells (light microscopy). Fig. 37. Elliptical guard cells of Fritillaria taipaiensis. Fig. 38. Narrow elliptical guard cells of Fritillaria crassicaulis. Fig. 39. Narrow elliptical guard cells of Fritillaria sinica. Fig. 40. Elliptical guard cells of Fritillaria walujewi. Fig. 41. Narrow elliptical guard cells of Fritillaria thunbergii. Fig. 42. Narrow elliptical guard cells of Fritillaria przewalskii. Fig. 43. Elliptical guard cells of Fritillaria unibracteata. Fig. 44. Narrow elliptical guard cells of Fritillaria dajinensis. Fig. 45. Narrow elliptical guard cells of Fritillaria verticillata. Fig. 46. Narrow elliptical guard cells of Fritillaria tortifolia. Fig. 47. Elliptical guard cells of Fritillaria delavayi. Fig. 48. Narrow elliptical guard cells of Fritillaria pallidiflora. Scale bar, 10 µm

All orientations of the stomatal poles in Fritillaria were the same, and this phenomenon was named ‘stomatal orientation’. The stomatal characteristics support the origin of section Fritillaria in China from two floristic elements.

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Characteristics of epidermal cells (light microscopy). Figs 49–51. Abaxial. Figs 52–55. Adaxial. Fig. 49. Narrow elliptical guard cells of Fritillaria anhuiensis. Fig. 50. Narrow elliptical guard cells of Fritillaria davidi. Fig. 51. Narrow elliptical guard cells of the putative species. Fig. 52. Wide elliptical guard cells of Fritillaria verticillata. Fig. 53. Narrow elliptical guard cells of Fritillaria tortifolia. Fig. 54. Elliptical guard cells of Fritillaria delavayi. Fig. 55. Narrow elliptical guard cells of Fritillaria pallidiflora. Scale bar, 10 µm.

Stomata in Crocus (Iridaceae)

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FIG. 1. Epidermal cells. A C. ashrricus, surface view; B C. banaticus, surface view; C C. caspius, cross section. Scale bars = 50pm.

 

Leaf anatomy in Crocus (Iridaceae)

by Rudall P. J., Mathew B. (1990)

Paula Rudall, Brian Mathew,

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in Kew Bull. 45(3): 535-544 –

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Paula_Rudall/publication/261062672_Leaf_anatomy_in_Crocus_L/links/00b7d5331b746dcf31000000/Leaf-anatomy-in-Crocus-L.pdf?origin=publication_list

Summary

The leaf anatomy of Crocus L. (Iridaceae-Ixioideae)is described in the context of the systematics of the subfamily.

Leaves of most species have a distinctive cross-sectional outline, with a central square or rectangular ‘keel’, and two lateral ‘arms’. C. carpetanus differs markedly in that it lacks a single central keel, and has several surface ridges.

Other minor variations include the presence of sclerenchyma ‘girders’ in some species, absent in others, which may be taxonomically significant.


 

1. Crocus general description (excluding C. carpetanus) :

Leaf surface:

Epidermal cells: general cell shape in surface view either rectangular or elliptical, sometimes tending towards a diamond shape with narrow end walls; always with a pronounced ‘lip’ adjacent to guard cells. Anticlinal walls in regions with stomata usually straight (Fig. 1A) or sometimes sinuous (Fig. 1B; e.g. in C. candidus, C.$avus, C. banaticus; markedly so in C. tournefortii). Cells over veins with straight anticlinal walls, sometimes with a central axial ridge; cells in regions surrounding stomata domed, without surface striations, except slight ridging on lip adjacent to guard cells. Papillae of 2 types, either (a) one per cell, generally present on prominent ridges over largest vascular bundles, or at keel corners, occasionally fairly long, hair-like (e.g. in C.pallasii, Fig. 3E); or (b) micropapillae, 2-10 per cell, in one row along cell axis or rarely in 2 rows (in C. caspius, Fig 1C). Stomata mainly confined to the grooves in the recurved undersurface of the arms, extending round to the lateral sides of the keel, although in a few species (e.g. C.pallasii) stomata also present on upper surface of arms.

Stomata in Iridaceae

 

 

Foliar epidermis and development of stomata in Iridaceae

by Pande P. C. (1980)

 

 

in Acta Botanica Indica 8(2): 256-259 –

https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/19820304148

Abstract :

Anatomical studies are reported on 24 species of the Iridaceae, including Crocus candidus, C. sativus, Ixia odorataFreesia armstrongii, F. refracta, Gladiolus tristis and many Iris spp.

Stomatal development differed between genera but the epidermal characters appeared to have limited taxonomical value.

Stomata in Meghalayan Dioscorea (monocots)

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Fig.1. Foliar epidermal structures of Dioscorea species. a) D.bulbifera, b) D. pubera, c) D. alata. (ana – anomocytic stomata, ans – anisocytic stomata, ter – tetracytic stomata).

 

Foliar epidermal, stem and petiole anatomy of Meghalayan Dioscorea L. (Dioscoreaceae) and its systematic implication

by Sheikh N., Kumar Y. (2017)

NILOFER SHEIKH, YOGENDRA KUMAR,

Botany Department, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong-22, India

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in Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon. 24(1): 53–63 –

33033-118743-2-PB (2).pdf

Abstract

A comparative anatomical study of eight species of Dioscorea L. from Meghalaya, North East India was carried out in order to evaluate the taxonomic significance of anatomical characters to differentiate the species.

Characters were coded and analyzed by PCA and cluster analysis. The combination of selected qualitative and quantitative anatomical characters of foliar epidermis, stem and petiole were significant for identification of species.

The characters that contributed most to the separation of the species were type of stomata, length of stomata, stomatal index, leaf epidermal hairs, stem epidermal hairs, layer of stem sclerenchyma, number of vascular bundle in outer ring and inner ring of stem, paired or unpaired metaxylem, presence of phloem at both ends or at one end, presence or absence of starch grain in stem, petiole epidermal hair and presence or absence starch grain and crystal in petiole.

An indented dichotomous key based on anatomical characters was constructed to distinguish and identify the species.


Stomata are restricted only to the lower surface (hypostomatic). Four types of stomata complex were identified namely anamocytic, tetracytic, paracytic and anisocytic (Fig. 1). D. alata possessed anisocytic, anamocytic and tetracytic stomata; D. pubera possessed paracytic and tetracytic stomata; D. belophylla, D. pentaphylla and D. bulbifera had paracytic, anisocytic and anamocytic types of stomata; D. glabra with anamocytic and tetracytic stomata; D. lepcharum and D. oppositifolia possessed all the four types of stomata. In the present analysis, the stomatal indexranges from 15.3 in D. alata to 24.6 in D. bulbifera.

………..

Our results showing presence of different types of stomata including paracytic, tetracytic and anomocytic etc were found congruent with those of Shah and Gopal (1972) and Abdulrahaman et al. (2009). The present study reveals an anamocytic character trait contributes much towards variability.

Stomata in Dioscoreaceae (monocots)

 

 

The relevance of stomatal frequency, type and size in the delimitation of three complex species of Dioscorea L. (Dioscoreaceae)

by Ugborogho R. E., Thottappilly N. Q. Ng. G., Hahn S. K. (1993)

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in  Feddes Rep. 104(7‐8): 485-496 – https://doi.org/10.1002/fedr.19931040712 –

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/fedr.19931040712

Abstract

The abaxial surfaces of the fresh leaves of 6 cultivars of Dioscorea alata L. (the water yam), 10 cultivars of D. cayenensis Lam. (the yellow yam) and 34 cultivars of D. rotundata Poir. (the white yam) were investigated for variations in the frequency, type and size of stomata.

Eleven stomata types, namely anomocytic, anisocytic, contiguous, paracytic, staurocytic, dicytic, tricytic, tetracytic, pentacytic, hexacytic and septacytic were observed in both D. cayenensis and D. rotundata. Among these stomata types, the paracytic, dicytic and septacytic were not found in D. alata. On the whole, the sizes of stomata increased with increase in the number of epidermal cells surrounding the guard cells especially with reference to tricytic, tetracytic and pentacytic stomata.

The mean stomatal frequency per microscopic field of 400 x in the three species were 177/mm2 in D. alata. 142/mm2 in D. cayenensis and 226/mm2 in D. rotundata while the overall means of stomatal length and breadth were 32.06 μm x 22.05 μm in D. alata and 34.50 μm x 23.42 μm in D. cayenensis and 34.07 μm x 22.76 μm in D. rotundata.

On the basis of the mean stomatal lengths, D. alata was separated into two groups, D. cayennensis into three and D. rotundata into four. D. alata was separated from the other two species while D. cayennensis was recognized as a variable subspecies of D. rotundata.

Stomata in Dioscoreaceae and Taccaceae

 

 

Epidermal Structure and Ontogeny of Stomata in some Dioscoreaceae and Taccaceae

by Patel R. J. (1971)

R. J. Patel,

Department of Botany, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyangar Distr.; Kaira, Gujarat State (India)

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in Flora 160(6): 562-572 – 

https://doi.org/10.1016/S0367-2530(17)32041-8

Summary

Epidermal structure and development of stomata are described in seven species and two varieties of Dioscoreaceae and one species of Taccaceae.

Epidermal cells are polygonal, isodia-metric or elongated and irregular in outline with thick straight arched or sinuous anticlinal walls. The surface of the cuticle shows parallel striations radiating from guard cells or hair bases. Three types of eglandular and one type of glandular trichomes are noticed.

The mature stomata are anomocytic, paracytic, diacytic, transitional between paracytic and diacytic, tetracytic, triacytic, staurocytic, cyclocytic and with a single subsidiary cell. Abnormalities observed are: variously oriented contiguous stomata, cytoplasmic connection between nearby stomata, connecting tube between two superimposed stomata, arrested development, aborted guard cells, single guard cell and division of guard cells.

The ontogeny of stomata is haplocheilic or perigenous.