Stomatal frequency and stomatal index in some Zingiberaceae



Leaf epidermal morphology of some species of Zingiberaceae

by Gogoi R.,  Bokolial D.,  Das D. S. (2002)

Department of Botany, Guwahati College, Guwahati – 21 (Assam), India.


in  Plant Archives 2(2): 257-262 ref.12 -ISSN :0972-5210 –

Abstract :

The leaf epidermal morphology of Zingiber officinale, Z. zerumbet, Elettaria cardamomum, Kaempfera galanga [Kaempferia galanga], Hedychium coronarium, H. angustifolium, Alpinia galanga, Catimbium malaccense, Costus speciosus, Curcuma longaCurcuma caesia, and Curcuma zedoaria, collected from Guwahati, AssamIndia, was studied.

The morphology of epidermal cell walls, nature and number of epidermal cells per unit area, stomatal frequency, trichome length, and stomatal index were identified as useful parameters for the differentiation of the 12 species.

Lamina was amphistomatic, with straight or straight to curved epidermal cell wall. Trichomes are uniseriate and non-glandular, and present only in Z. officinale, Z. zerumbet, K. galanga, H. coronarium, H. angustifolium, and Costus speciosus.

Stomatal index was highest in K. galanga (abaxial surface) and Z. zerumbet (adaxial surface), and lowest in E. cardamomum (abaxial surface) and A. galanga (adaxial surface).

A key to the 12 species, based on epidermal characters, is presented.


Stomata in some Zingiberales



The structure and development of stomata in some Zingiberales

by Olatunji O. A. (1980)

Ife University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.


in Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh 38(3): 499-516 ref.12 –

Abstract :

Stomata were investigated in 70 species of the order Zingiberales and found to consist of 4 types (paracytic, tricytic, tetracytic and polycytic) distinguished by the number and type of subsidiary or contact epidermal cells surrounding the mature stoma.

The species for which data are tabulated include Musa acuminata, M. sapientum X paradisiacam, Strelitzia reginaeAframomum melegueta, Zingiber officinale and Z. zerumbet.

Stomata in Iranian Iris species



Investigation the morphocytological traits and ploidy level in Iris species of Iranian native in Zanjan Province

by Ghasemi S. J., Rabiei V., Soleyman A., Khalighi A. (2014)

Somayyeh Joz Ghasemi 1*,

Vali Rabiei 2 ,

Ali SoleymanI 3 ,

Ahmad Khalighi 4

1 Horticultural Science Department , College of Agriculture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University ,Tehran, Iran

2 Horticultural Science Department, College of Agriculture, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran

3 Reasearch Institute of Modern Biological Techniques, University of Zanjan. Zanjan. Iran

4 Horticultural Science Department, College of Agriculture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University ,Tehran, Iran


in Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES) ISSN: 2220-6663 (Print) 2222-3045 (Online) 5(1): 72-81 –


Determining the chromosomal level is important in breeding programs. Determining the chromosomal levels in Iris species is time consuming and costly by Cytogenetic and DNA Cytometric methods due to the large number and tiny size of chromosomes. Therefore, an investigation was performed in 2011-2013 aimed at assessing the relationship between the morphocytological traits and chromosomal level in lris species native to Iran (Zanjan province) and was arranged in a completely randomized block design with10 replications.

Results of the statistical analysis showed that the traits of chloroplast number in stomatal guard cells, length stomatal guard cells, stomatal and epidermal cell density, stomatal index and stomatal conductance cannot be an accurate measure for determining the chromosomal level among different species of Iris under this study.

During the implementation of test, Clypeate pollen grains were observed in the species I. persica, I. sp and I. psedocaucasica and the results of the statistical analysis of the data indicated that a significant increase in the pollen grain diameter was observed in species with higher level of chromosome, compared with lris species with lower levels of chromosome, and this trait can be used as a simple and rapid method in determining the chromosomal level of lris species and it is capable of simplifying the implementation of the iris breeding programs.

Subsidiary cells in stomata of Orchidaceae



Subsidiary cells in the Orchidaceae: their general distribution with spatial reference to the development in the Oncidieae

by Williams N. H. (1979)

Norris H Williams, University of Florida, Gainesville, United States


in Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 78: 41-66 – DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.1979.tb02185.x –


Subsidiary cell formation in leaves of the Oncidieae begins with the production of a trapezoid cell on each side of the guard cell mother cell. The trapezoid cells are formed by oblique divisions in the tiles of cells next to the tile of cells containing the guard cell mother cell. The trapezoid cell usually divides unequally to form a subsidiary cell and a derivative cell.

The subsidiary cell is smaller and next to the guard cell mother cell. The derivative cell enlarges and is often indistinguishable from the other epidermal cells. Rarely, polar subsidiary cells are also formed. In very rare cases the smaller of the division products of the trapezoid cell divides to form two subsidiary cells next to each guard cell.

Subsidiary cells have been found in all tribes of the epidendroid and vandoid groups, all neottoid tribes examined except the Orchideae, and the subfamily Cypripedioideae. The absence of subsidiary cells in primitive genera of the epidendroid tribes and the presence of subsidiary cells in the most advanced genera of the epidendroid and vandoid groups supports the hypothesis that the presence of subsidiary cells is an advanced condition in the Orchidaceae.

Stomata in medicinal grasses

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Leaf Epidermal Anatomy of Medicinal Grasses of Islamabad, Attock and Mirpur (Azad Kashmir)

by Chaudhary M. I., Mumtaz A. S., Khan M. A. (2001)

M. Ishtiaq Chaudhary Abdul Samad MumtazMir Ajab Khan,

Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Palistan


in Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 4(12): 1466-1469 – DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2001.1466.1469 –


Abaxial and adaxial leaf epidermal anatomy of four related species having morphological resemblances have been studied.

These taxa showed variation in short and long cells, silica bodies, macro and micro hair, presence or absence of stomata and shape of subsidiary cells.

Most of these characters are diagnostic and have been used for making keys. Hence, on the basis of leaf epidermal anatomy we can distinguish among Cymbopogon citrates (DC.) Stapf, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pars , Panicum summatrense Roeth ex Roem & Schult and Viteveria zizanoides (L.) Nash .

Stomata in aquatic herbs Monochoria (Pontederiaceae)

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Monochoria vaginalis, (a) Transverse section of leaf through the midrib, (b) Mid rib, (c) Lamina, (d) Para dermal section of epidermis, (e) Stomata enlarged, (f) Raphides under polarized light. Monochoria hastata, (g) Transverse section of leaf through the midrib, (h) Mid rib, (i) Lamina, (j) Para dermal section of epidermis, (k) Stomata enlarged, (l) Raphides under polarized light. Ab: Abaxial side, Ac: Air chamber, Ad: Adaxial side, Mr: Mid rib, Vb: Vascular bundle, Pf: Partition filament, Ph: Phloem, Xy: Xylem, Sc: Sclerenchyma, Ep: Epidermis, Pm: Palisade mesophyll, St: Stomata, AdB: Adaxial bundle, AbB: Abaxial bundle, AbE: Abaxial epidermis, AdE: Adaxial epidermis, Pf: Partition filament, La: Lamina, Lv: Lateral vein, Bs: Bundle sheath, Ra: Raphide, Ec: Epidermal cells, Mt: Mesophyll tissue, Pcr: Prismatic crystals, Aw: Anticlinal wall, S: Stoma, Gc: Guard cell, AdP: Adaxial Palisade, AbP: Abaxial Palisade Scale bars: (a, g) = 1 mm, (b) = 350 μm, (c, d, f, h,i, j, l) = 250 μm, (e, k) = 100 μm


Comparative Anatomical Characteristics of Emergent Aquatic Herbs-Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. F.) Presl. and Monochoria hastata Solms. (Pontederiaceae)

by Narayanan K. B., Kaliappan I. (2014)

Kasthuri Bai Narayanan,

Ilango Kaliappan, SRM University, Chennai, India


in International Journal of Botany 10 (1): 13-23 – DOI: 10.3923/ijb.2014.13.23


The present investigation explores and compares the detailed anatomical features of an emergent aquatic herb of Monochoria vaginalis and Monochoria hastata, belonging to water-hyacinth family, Pontederiaceae. These weedy plants are claimed to be highly nutritious and medicinally valuable among many ethnic communities throughout India. But due to their morphological similarity among the related species of this family, identification and utilization of the plant has been ignored and urbanization has resulted in eradication of the herb on the basis of environmental wet land pollution issues.

Both species exhibits unique hydromorphic anatomical features related to the adaptability of the plant to the aquatic environment. Though both species share most of the anatomical features in common, few differences observed in the leaf anatomy like dorsiventral lamina, brachy-paratetracytic stomata of M. vaginalis and isobilateral lamina and paracytic or cytocytic stomata of M. hastata will provide valuable information for the plant identification.

Even though both the species share common morphological features in common which make them difficult to identify, the microscopical variations observed from the current report helps in identification and will meet the demand of standardization requirements of medicinal herbs.


Epidermal cells and stomata
Monochoria vaginalis: Para dermal sections were used for studying the stomatal type and epidermal cells. The stomata are present on both upper and lower sides of the lamina. The stomata are brachy-paratetracytic type (Fig. 2d). A stoma has two lateral subsidiary cells and two larger polar subsidiary cells situated on the upper and lower poles of the guard cells. The guard cells are oblong, elliptic measuring 20×50 μm in size. The epidermal cells are fairly thick walled, angular and compact (Fig. 2e).

Monochoria hastata: Stomata occur on both the upper and lower surfaces of the lamina. They are diffused and random in distribution. The stomata are either paracytic or cytocytic, the former being more in frequency (Fig. 2j), the paracytic stoma has two wing like subsidiary cells, one on either side of the guard cells and parallel to the guard cells (Fig. 2k). In the cytocytic type, a stoma is surrounded by four subsidiary cells, two cells being polar and other two being lateral in position.

Stomata in water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)



Anatomical studies on water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) under the influence of textile wastewater

by Mahmood Q., Zheng P., Siddiqi M. R., Islam E. u.,  Azim M. R., Hayat Y. (2005)

1Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310029, China
2Department of Botany, Federal Government Postgraduate College, H-8, Islamabad, Pakistan
3Department of Botany, Forman Christian College Lahore, Pakistan
4Department of Maths/Stat/Computer Science, North Western Frontier Province Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan



in J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 6(10): 991–998 – doi:  10.1631/jzus.2005.B0991 –


Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) is a prolific free floating aquatic macrohpyte found in tropical and subtropical parts of the earth.

The effects of pollutants from textile wastewater on the anatomy of the plant were studied. Water hyacinth exhibits hydrophytic adaptations which include reduced epidermis cells lacking cuticle in most cases, presence of large air spaces (7~50 μm), reduced vascular tissue and absorbing structures.

Textile waste significantly affected the size of root cells. The presence of raphide crystals was noted in parenchyma cells of various organs in treated plants.

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Leaf epidermis

Epidermal peels of leaves were studied. Trichomes are not observed in epidermis.

Stomata are of paracytic type. The average size of guard cells was calculated to be 7 µm×4 µm, while the average size of the pore was 4 µm×4 µm. The stomata frequency on the upper epidermis was 2.83 mm2 and 3.32 mm2 on the lower epidermis. Thus the leaves are amphistomatic (Figs.(Figs.1010~~11).11).

Stomatal characteristics of epidermis in control and experimental plants are given in Tables Tables55~~6.6. The experimental plants showed significant (P<0.05) reduction in the size of upper and lower epidermal cells, while the stomatal frequency and stomatal index in upper epidermis were not significantly affected.