Stomata in palm seedlings

Morphology and Anatomy of Palm Seedlings

by Henderson F. (2006)

Flor M. Henderson


In The Botanical Review 72: 273-329 – DOI:  10.1663/0006-8101(2006)72[273:MAAOPS]2.0.CO;2 –


A historical survey of studies of seedling morphology and anatomy in the palm family is given. The traditional three germination types—adjacent ligular, remote ligular, and remote tubular—that have been commonly recognized are reevaluated. The study includes seedlings of 63 species, representing the six subfamilies of palms. Morphological characteristics of germination patterns and the anatomy of the eophyll are described. The results of this survey show that germination types determined by the length of the hyperphyll (cotyledonary petiole) are not completely valid. Instead, a combination of characters such as primary root orientation, coleoptile length, number of cataphylls, and eophyll plication correspond to the most recent classification of the family, and represent a better way of describing germination.


Stomata of sugar cane

De groei van bladschijf, bladscheede en stengel van het suikerriet

Kuyper J. (1915)

In Archief voor de Suikerindustrie in Nederlandsch Indië 23: 528-540, pIs. 2. –

Stomata of sugar cane.-

KUYPER (1915) in connection with an investigation of
the transpiration of sugar cane discovered a lack of knowledge of the structure
of the stomata. Several methods were tried for measuring the width of the
stomatal cleft. Direct measurements with the microscope proved impossible,
not only because it is very difficult to make good preparations of the leaf for
this purpose, but also because the variations in the opening are very small.
Since, however, the application of the infiltration method of Miss E. STEIN
showed that great variations really exist in the rapidity with which paraffin
and kerosene penetrate the leaf tissue, it was clear that there must be something in the structure of the stoma which could explain this variation. The figures of transverse sections of stomata show that any noticeable widening
of the slit in the ordinary way is impossible, because of the very thick cell
walls. The guard cell, however, can move a little as a whole, because it is
distinctly hinged with the adjacent cell. The general conclusions reached are
as follows: a movement as described by SCHWENDENER for grass stomata is
impossible; the guard cells can vary their distance from each other to a slight
extent by changing their position among the surrounding epidermal cells;
the position and structure of the neighboring cells makes it possible to change
the length of the slit in the vertical direction.-J. M. C.

Stomata and foliar epidermal anatomy as an aid to the identification of grasses

Foliar epidermal anatomy as an aid to the identification of grasses in tribe Aveneae (subfamily Pooideae, Poaceae) from salt range of Pakistan

by Ahmad F., Khan M. A., Ahmad M., Arshad M., Zafar M., Khan A., Raja N. I., ur Rehman Z. (2011)

Farooq Ahmad1*, Mir Ajab Khan2, Mushtaq Ahmad2, Muhammad Arshad1, Muhammad Zafar2, Ameer Khan3, Naveed Iqbal Raja2, Zia ur Rehman1

1 Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

2 Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan.

3 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Sargodha, Pakistan.


In Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 5(1): 81-87 – ISSN 1996-0875 –


In the present studies foliar epidermal anatomy regarding 7 species belonging to 5 genera of tribe Aveneae (Poaceae) was carried out.

The studies revealed that different leaf anatomical characters, such as presence or absence of rounded short cells, length of long cells, size of stomatal complex and shape of silica bodies, are helpful in the identification of different species and genera within the tribe.

Large cells with maximum length and largest stomatal complex are found in Avena sp. In genus Agrostis, Phalaris and Koeleria variations exist in the morphology of silica bodies.

The studies revealed that diversity in different anatomical characters present within the species and genera is a valuable tool for the differentiation and correct identification of species in tribe Aveneae.

Stomata in identification and differentiation of grasses

Role of leaf epidermis in identification and differentiation of grasses in tribe Chlorideae (Poaceae) from Pakistan

Ahmad F., Hameed M., Ashraf M., Ahmad M., Khan A., Nawaz T., Ahmad K. S., Zafar M. (2012))

Farooq Ahmad1*, Mansoor Hameed1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Mushtaq Ahmad2, Ameer Khan3, Tahira Nawaz1, Khawaja Shafique Ahmad1 and Muhammad Zafar2

1 Department of Botany, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.

2 Department of Plant sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Quaid-I-Azam University Islamabad,Pakistan.

3 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan


In Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 6(10: 1955-1960 – Doi: 10.5897/JMPR11.1654 –


Stomatal and other foliar morpho- and palynological characters significant in the delimitation of grass species

Microsoft Word – No.16-IJNLS.KhanImplication of comparative foliar epidermal micromorphological and palynological characters in the delimitation of grasses et al..docx
Figure 1. Different foliar micromorphological characters stomata, trichomes, silica bodies can be seen on both abaxial and adaxial surfaces at light (40X) and SEM in Festuca arundinaceae (3, 4, 15 and 16), Hordeum murinum (5, 6, 17 and 18), 7, 8, 19 and 20), Lolium persicum (9, 10, 21 and 22) and Poa annua (11, 12, 23 and 24)


Comparative leaf and pollen micromorphology on some Grasses taxa (Poaceae) distributed in Pakistan

by Khan R., Abidin S. Z. U., Mumtaz A. S., Jamsheed S., Ullah H. (2017)

Races Khan1*, Sheikh Zain Ul Abidin1, Abdul Samad Mumtaz1, Shayan Jamsheed1, Hadayat Ullah2

1 Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid- i- Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan

2 Department of Botany, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan


In International Journal of Nature and Life Sciences (IJNLS) 1(2): 72-82 – ISSN: 2602-2478 –



Microsoft Word – No.16-IJNLS.KhanImplication of comparative foliar epidermal micromorphological and palynological characters in the delimitation of grasses et al..docx

Six grass species of Lolium persicum Boiss. & Hohen. ex Boiss, Poa annua L, Festuca arundinaceae Schreb, Aegilops cylindrica Host and Hordeum murinum L. were investigated for their foliar micromorphological and palynological characters through light and scanning electron microscoipe for their taxonomic importance.

Different foliar micromorphological characteristics i.e. silica bodies, macrohairs, microhairs, stomatal number, size, stomatal shape, stomatal density (SD), epidermal cell number, epidermal cell density (ECD), subsidiary cells, short and long cells were examined and observed on both abaxial and adaxial surfaces. The pollen characters i.e. pollen type, polar and equatorial view and diameter along with some other characters were also observed. These foliar morpho- and palynological characters were found significant in the delimitation of these species.

Leaf epidermal anatomical technique and stomata for identification of some grass species

Application of leaf epidermal anatomical technique for identification of some grass species from district Bhimber of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

by Ishtiaq M., Maqbool M., Hussain T., Bhatti K. H., Mushtaq W., Nadeem A. (2018)


In Pakistan Journal of Botany 50(5): 1853-1863 –


Grasses are main source of food (cereals), fodder of livestock and good source of therapeutics and cosmetics in traditional medicine systems of the world. It is rather difficult to identify and classify grasses properly. As these plants are ethnobotanically important and have been used for treatment of different disease in traditional cultural therapeutics for dyspepsia, burning sensation, piles, sexual weakness, gynecological troubles, respiratory troubles, Kidney stones, acid reflex, blood impurity, debility, diarrhea, lecuoderma, allergy, anemia, anuria, anticancer and antidiabetic. It is pertinent that identifying grass species is very difficult task if based on only morphological features. The key purpose of this research was to identify the selected taxa of grasses by using morphometric analysis and leaf epidermal anatomical approach from District Bhimber of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK). Following species grasses: Cynodon dactylon L., Saccharum spontanium L., Saccharum ravennae L., Poa annua L. and Poa nemoralis L. were selected for this study. In morphometric analysis; cluster was formed which divided relevant species into distinct groups (taxon). Genetic distance (GD) was calculated to explore inter and intra-species variation. It was found that taxa from Bhimber area had highest GD (135) while species from Barnala showed least GD (83). From Leaf epidermal anatomy (LEA) study, stomatal index (SI) was calculated and among Saccharum genus: Saccharum spontanium showed highest SI (23.6) while Saccharum revennae had SI value of 12.6. In other genus Poa: Poa nemoralis depicted SI of (20.4) and while Poa annua had SI of 12.5. Other genus Cynodon (out group): Cynodon dactylon showed stomatal index of (15.0). Taxonomic keys has been devised for proper identification of all taxa under this study.

Stomata in some monocotyledonous weeds

Structural diversity of stomata in some monocotyledonous weeds

by Obembe O. A. (2015)



In World Journal of Science and Technology Research 3(1): 1-13 – ISSN: 2329 –,No.1,January%202015/STRUCTURAL%20DIVERSITY.pdf


23 herbaceous taxa distributed in 9 orders and 10 monocotyledonous families were documented on nature of stomata.

Only arched epidermal cells were observed. Anomocytic, paracytic, tetracytic and hexacytic and mixed stomata were recorded.

Stomata size ranged from 17.47µm ± 0.23 x 16.13µm ± 0.29 in Smilax kraussiana to 58.80µm ± 0.33 x 50.40µm ± 0.39 in Commelina benghalensis and stomata index values varying from 0.57% in Aframomum sceptrum to 14.40% in Rhaphidophora africana were documented in this study.