The investigation of functionally superior grass stomata

Ontogenetic and morphological diversity of stomata in plants.

Form, development and function of grass stomata

by Nunes T. D. G., Zhang D., Raissig M. T. (2019)

Tiago D. G. Nunes, Dan Zhang, Michael T. Raissig,

In The Plant Journal, Early View –

Development of morphologically innovative grass stomata.


Stomata are cellular breathing pores on leaves that open and close to absorb photosynthetic carbon dioxide and to restrict water loss through transpiration, respectively. Grasses (Poaceae) form morphologically innovative stomata, which consist of two dumbbell‐shaped guard cells flanked by two lateral subsidiary cells (SCs). This ‘graminoid’ morphology is associated with faster stomatal movements leading to more water‐efficient gas exchange in changing environments. Here, we offer a genetic and mechanistic perspective on the unique graminoid form of grass stomata and the developmental innovations during stomatal cell lineage initiation, recruitment of SCs and stomatal morphogenesis. Furthermore, the functional consequences of the four‐celled, graminoid stomatal morphology are summarized. We compile the identified players relevant for stomatal opening and closing in grasses, and discuss possible mechanisms leading to cell‐type‐specific regulation of osmotic potential and turgor. In conclusion, we propose that the investigation of functionally superior grass stomata might reveal routes to improve water‐stress resilience of agriculturally relevant plants in a changing climate.

Reciprocal regulation of cell turgor in guard cells (GCs) and subsidiary cells (SCs) for higher gas‐exchange efficiency.

Struktur Stomata Pada Tanaman Marga Nymphaea (Teratai)

by Saputri N. W., Sulistiono, Retnani D. A. B. (2015)

In Prosiding Seminar Nasional Biologi / IPA dan Pembelajarannya –


Stomata in Poaceae

Chapter 7: Taxonomic evaluation of family Poaceae from District Lahore based on leaf epidermal anatomy characters

Rani S., Qamar N. R. (xxxx)

Sumaira Rani, N. R. Qamar,

Department of Botany, Lahore College for Women, University Lahore




Present study was conducted to investigate leaf epidermal anatomy of family Poaceae from district Lahore. The study was conducted in Molecular taxonomy Lab, Lahore College for Women University, Jail Road Lahore.

Morphology based taxonomic information of family Poaceae is contradictory. Therefore new taxonomic tools were investigated. Leaf epidermal anatomy is considered one of the effective technique used for the generation of more authentic taxonomic information.

Important characters identified for the family Poaceae were types and shapes of cells, cell membrane variation, shape and types of trichome, oil droplets, silica bodies and stomatal cell plasmodesmata cells.

Cells  rectangular in shape and elongated with tapering ends were more prominent feature of Eragrostis minor and Dactyloctenium aegyptium. The maximum length of long cells range from 520µm- 450µm was found in Lolium temulentiumon abaxial side of epidermis.

Silica bodies, oil droplets and plasmodesmata were absent from both abaxial and adaxial surface of Setaria intermedia. Cross shape silica bodies were  found in Digitaria and regular to irregular shape of silica bodies was  found in all other species of family Poaceae.

Trichomes not only showed variation in length but also for origin, it may be intracellular, from the surface of outer membrane/ inner- membrane.

Stomata were absent from both abaxial and adaxial epidermis in Eleusine flagillifera, Digitaria ischaemum and Dactylotenium aegyptium on adaxial side.

Leaf epidermal anatomy was found to be an important tool for the identification and characteristzation of family Poaceae and it can be effectively utilized for solving the persistent taxonomic problems of family Poaceae.

Stomata in palm seedlings

Morphology and Anatomy of Palm Seedlings

by Henderson F. (2006)

Flor M. Henderson


In The Botanical Review 72: 273-329 – DOI:  10.1663/0006-8101(2006)72[273:MAAOPS]2.0.CO;2 –


A historical survey of studies of seedling morphology and anatomy in the palm family is given. The traditional three germination types—adjacent ligular, remote ligular, and remote tubular—that have been commonly recognized are reevaluated. The study includes seedlings of 63 species, representing the six subfamilies of palms. Morphological characteristics of germination patterns and the anatomy of the eophyll are described. The results of this survey show that germination types determined by the length of the hyperphyll (cotyledonary petiole) are not completely valid. Instead, a combination of characters such as primary root orientation, coleoptile length, number of cataphylls, and eophyll plication correspond to the most recent classification of the family, and represent a better way of describing germination.

Stomata of sugar cane

De groei van bladschijf, bladscheede en stengel van het suikerriet

Kuyper J. (1915)

In Archief voor de Suikerindustrie in Nederlandsch Indië 23: 528-540, pIs. 2. –

Stomata of sugar cane.-

KUYPER (1915) in connection with an investigation of
the transpiration of sugar cane discovered a lack of knowledge of the structure
of the stomata. Several methods were tried for measuring the width of the
stomatal cleft. Direct measurements with the microscope proved impossible,
not only because it is very difficult to make good preparations of the leaf for
this purpose, but also because the variations in the opening are very small.
Since, however, the application of the infiltration method of Miss E. STEIN
showed that great variations really exist in the rapidity with which paraffin
and kerosene penetrate the leaf tissue, it was clear that there must be something in the structure of the stoma which could explain this variation. The figures of transverse sections of stomata show that any noticeable widening
of the slit in the ordinary way is impossible, because of the very thick cell
walls. The guard cell, however, can move a little as a whole, because it is
distinctly hinged with the adjacent cell. The general conclusions reached are
as follows: a movement as described by SCHWENDENER for grass stomata is
impossible; the guard cells can vary their distance from each other to a slight
extent by changing their position among the surrounding epidermal cells;
the position and structure of the neighboring cells makes it possible to change
the length of the slit in the vertical direction.-J. M. C.

Stomata and foliar epidermal anatomy as an aid to the identification of grasses

Foliar epidermal anatomy as an aid to the identification of grasses in tribe Aveneae (subfamily Pooideae, Poaceae) from salt range of Pakistan

by Ahmad F., Khan M. A., Ahmad M., Arshad M., Zafar M., Khan A., Raja N. I., ur Rehman Z. (2011)

Farooq Ahmad1*, Mir Ajab Khan2, Mushtaq Ahmad2, Muhammad Arshad1, Muhammad Zafar2, Ameer Khan3, Naveed Iqbal Raja2, Zia ur Rehman1

1 Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

2 Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan.

3 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Sargodha, Pakistan.


In Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 5(1): 81-87 – ISSN 1996-0875 –


In the present studies foliar epidermal anatomy regarding 7 species belonging to 5 genera of tribe Aveneae (Poaceae) was carried out.

The studies revealed that different leaf anatomical characters, such as presence or absence of rounded short cells, length of long cells, size of stomatal complex and shape of silica bodies, are helpful in the identification of different species and genera within the tribe.

Large cells with maximum length and largest stomatal complex are found in Avena sp. In genus Agrostis, Phalaris and Koeleria variations exist in the morphology of silica bodies.

The studies revealed that diversity in different anatomical characters present within the species and genera is a valuable tool for the differentiation and correct identification of species in tribe Aveneae.

Stomata in identification and differentiation of grasses

Role of leaf epidermis in identification and differentiation of grasses in tribe Chlorideae (Poaceae) from Pakistan

Ahmad F., Hameed M., Ashraf M., Ahmad M., Khan A., Nawaz T., Ahmad K. S., Zafar M. (2012))

Farooq Ahmad1*, Mansoor Hameed1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Mushtaq Ahmad2, Ameer Khan3, Tahira Nawaz1, Khawaja Shafique Ahmad1 and Muhammad Zafar2

1 Department of Botany, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan.

2 Department of Plant sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Quaid-I-Azam University Islamabad,Pakistan.

3 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan


In Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 6(10: 1955-1960 – Doi: 10.5897/JMPR11.1654 –