Stomata in Tulipa (Liliaceae)

Phoro Google Wikimedia Commons – This image comes from the archive of Josef Reischig and is part of the 384 pictures kindly donated by the authorship heirs under CC BY SA 3.0 license as a part of Wikimedia Czech Republic‘s GLAM initiative. – Tulip leaf epidermis. – 3,749 × 2,399 (2.54 MB)

Optical microscopy technique:Differential interference contrast (Nomarski)

Magnification: 600x (for picture width 26 cm ~ A4 format).

11 March 2014 –3,751 × 2,401 (1.42 MB) – VicuñaUploader 1.20
Josef Reischig

Stomata in Lilium (Liliaceae)

Photo Google Wikimedia Commons – Photomicrograph of a Lilium leaf with stoma. A=Guard cell, B=Nucleus. Scale=0.1mm. – Source : Jon Houseman and Matthew Ford – 29 September 2014 – Author : Jon Houseman –Original file ‎(1,200 × 886 pixels, file size: 208 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) – 1,200 × 886 (208 KB)

Stomata in Paspalum (Poaceae)

Paspalum sp. (Photo Wikipedia)

Dumbbell-shaped stomata on a leaf of Paspalum sp. Imagem obtained with the help of optical microscopy and dyes. – 21 April 2015 – Author: Karl Az. (Estomatos.jpg ‎(637 × 224 pixels, file size: 109 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)) – This image was uploaded as part of Wiki Science Competition 2017.

Dumbbell-shaped stomata on a leaf of Paspalum sp. Imagem obtained with the help of optical microscopy and dyes. – 21 April 2015 – Author: Karl Az. 

Português: Estômato em formato de halteres em uma folha de Paspalum sp. Imagem obtida com a ajuda de microscopia óptica e corantes. – 21 April 2015 – Author: Karl Az. 

Original file ‎(902 × 641 pixels, file size: 390 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)

Stomata in Allium (Amaryllidaceae)

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Figs. 1-16. Characteristics of adaxial epidermal cells in Allium. Scale bar = 40 μm. 1. A. tuberosum, 2. A. ramosum, 3. A. oreoprasum, 4. A. lineare, 5. A. strictum, 6. A. flavidum, 7. A. przewalskianum, 8. A. tekesicola, 9. A. mongolicum, 10. A. caespitosum, 11. A. polyrhizum, 12. A. Bidentatum, 13. A. anisopodium, 14. A. weschniakowii, 15. A. senescens, 16. A. nutans


The taxonomic significance of leaf epidermal micromorphological characters in distinguishing 43 species of Allium L. (Amaryllidaceae) from central Asia

by Lin C.-Y., Tan D.-Y. (2015)

Chen-Yi LIN, 1,2 AND Dun-Yan TAN, 1*

1 Key Laboratory of Western Arid Region Grassland Resources and Ecology, Ministry of Education, China; Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Grassland Resources and Ecology; College of Pratacultural and Environmental Science, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Ürümqi 830052, China
2 College of Forestry and Horticulture, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Ürümqi 830052, China



in Pak. J. Bot. 47(5): 1979-1988 –


The genus Allium is comprised of more than 800 species, and although previous studies have been useful in identifying the species, there is a paucity of easy-to-observe morphological characters with which to distinguish them. Thus, we determined the micromorphological characteristics of the leaf epidermis of 43 species of Allium from Central Asia using light microscopy and evaluated their taxonomic significance.

Our study examined variability in epidermal cell shape and size and the stomatal apparatus.

The stomatal apparatus is ellipsoid, anomocytic and amphistomatic. The shape (rectangular or rhomboid) of epidermal cells, pattern (straight or arched) of anticlinal walls, and stomatal index are stable within a species, while there are differences among species that allow for species delimitation. Based on the shape and pattern of anticlinal walls of leaf epidermal cells, the 43 sampled species could be divided into three distinct types of epidermal cells: type 1, rhomboid cell shape and straight anticlinal walls; type 2, rhomboid cell shape and arched anticlinal walls; and type 3, rectangular cell shape and straight anticlinal walls.

These leaf epidermal micromorphological characters prove to be the taxonomic significance in distinguishing and delimitating species in Allium.

Stomata in Bomarea (Alstroemeriaceae)

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Leaf surface and epicuticular wax of the subgenera Bomarea (A–D) and Sphaerine (E, F). A, Bomarea crassifolia, adaxial side; B–D, B. cordifolia, B, C, adaxial side, D, abaxial side; E, F, B. distichifolia, E, adaxial side, F, abaxial side. Note hairs (A, B, E) and wax-covered stoma (C). Scale bars: A, B, 700 µm; C, D, 44 µm; E, 70 µm; F, 300 µm.


Functional leaf anatomy of Bomarea Mirb. (Alstroemeriaceae)

by Hofreiter A., Lyshede O. B. (2006)

Anton Hofreiter, Ole B. Lyshede,


in Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 152(1): 73–90,


The leaf anatomy of Bomarea is described and related to ecological conditions. The principal architecture of all species is very similar; adaptations are developed in numerous differences, for instance degree of lignification. All species have inverse leaves, the adaxial side being the stomatous side. In most species, the leaves are resupinate, the lower surface being the adaxial. Theories for the cause of resupination are discussed.

The stomata appear only between the vascular bundles

The essential function and features of stomata from grasses



Grass stomata

by McKown K. H., Bergmann D. C. (2018)

1 Department of Genetics, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

2 Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.


in Curr Biol. 28(15): R814-R816 –  doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2018.05.074 –

PMID: 30086309


Stomata are adjustable valves through which gas and water exchange occur in plant leaves.

Here, McKown and Bergmann highlight the essential function and features of stomata from grasses.