AI and scientific research on plant stomata

Artificial intelligence is increasingly being used. One may wonder whether this will also be the case in scientific research on the structure and function of plant stomata.

Are there any indications of this currently? Are there any references that point to this?


Chat GPT helped us to the following :

Yes, there are some references to the possible use of AI in the research on plant stomata. Plant stomata are small pores on the surface of leaves that regulate gas exchange between the plant and the environment. Studying stomata can help researchers better understand how plants respond to changes in the environment, such as changes in temperature and humidity.

Here are a few examples of how AI could be used in research on plant stomata:

  1. Automated stomata counting: Researchers could use machine learning algorithms to develop automated methods for counting the number of stomata on plant leaves. This would save time and effort compared to manual counting.
  2. Stomata classification: Machine learning algorithms could also be used to classify different types of stomata based on their size, shape, and other characteristics. This could help researchers better understand how different plant species respond to changes in the environment.
  3. Image analysis: AI algorithms could be used to analyze images of stomata to identify patterns and trends in stomatal behavior over time. This could help researchers better understand how stomata respond to different environmental conditions.

Some references on the topic include:

  1. Sánchez-Martín, J., Rodríguez-Domínguez, C. M., & Pérez-Bueno, M. L. (2020). Machine learning for plant stomata analysis. Plants, 9(9), 1156.
  2. Chen, X., Zhang, Y., Zhang, X., Liu, Y., Ma, J., & Zhang, Y. (2021). A deep learning approach to the segmentation and quantification of stomata. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 182, 106006.
  3. Wang, Y., Guo, H., & Gao, Y. (2021). Stomatal behavior analysis and prediction using artificial intelligence. Plant Methods, 17(1), 36.

Regenerate response

Who can help Florin ?

Please get in contact with Florin.

We received Florin’s message :

Dear Willem,

My name is Florin Pendea and I am a researcher at Lakehead University in Canada. I am currently working on a paleoecological study from the Far East and I have come across a stomata on one of my pollen slides and I was wondering if you could help me identify it based on your extensive expertise on this topic.

The sediment is 30,000 years old and the presence of stomata is quite rare for this time period. My knowledge on stomata is limited but I suspect it could be from Alnus based on the presence of papillae on the guard cells. Would it be possible for you to take a look at the photos attached and tell me what you think?

I would very much appreciate it.




Florin Pendea PhD

Associate Professor

Departments of Sustainability Sciences and Geography
Lakehead University Orillia

President – Canadian Association of Palynologists

Secretary – Lakehead University Faculty Association

500 University Avenue, Orillia, ON, L3V 0B9, Canada

t: (705) 330-4010 ext. 2653
Fax: (705) 329-4035



The importance of this blog for researchers working on stomata

Some are asking me why I continue to complete this PLANT STOMATA ENCYCLOPEDIA.

The answer to that question lies in the way I have been preparing my own PhD (1964-1968) : working for hours and hours, day after day in our university library in Ghent (Belgium), looking for publications on stomata, reading abstract after abstract, reading quickly the articles related to my PhD subject (on morphology of stomata of the Filicopsida), and handwriting (copying) the most interesting parts for later use in my PhD.

How many days did I spend in that library ? How many days have I been handwriting and copying (typing) parts of publications to present them in a comprehensive collection of data (and pictures) in my PhD Thesis ?

Of course, I have enjoyed later on the appearance of modern technologies (xerocopies, photocopies, the first computers, the copy-paste possibilities to store interesting data in files and folders, etc.).

As a MSc. (Botany) I enjoyed for 6 years to be a high school science teacher (biology, chemistry, physics) before returning to the university as an assistant professor in 1964. I was so lucky to be enabled to build a nice career at the Ghent University as a botany and didactics professor, during which I focused a major part of my research work on plant growth in dry regions, participating in the combat of desertification (UNCCD), developing different methods to alleviate malnutrition and hunger.

After I retired in 1994, I have been spending a lot of time at updating continuously a number of my personal blogs and Facebook pages. In January 2015, I decided to start this WordPress blog on PLANT STOMATA ENCYCLOPEDIA, aiming at collecting as much as possible the existing literature references and abstracts on stomata. Remembering the enormous number of days I spent myself screening the literature, my main goal was to help the modern researchers on stomata with a complete collection of data (references and abstracts) that could offer them a considerable gain of time for their own research work.

Today, noticing that this Blog on Stomata has already registered more than 462.000 hits, I consider it as an important success. It encourages me to continue this work, bringing me every day the joy that my efforts are seemingly appreciated by my colleagues THE ACTUAL STOMATA EXPERTS.

Wishing all of you a lot of success with your interesting work.


Keiko Torii joins UT Austin faculty

Plant biologist Keiko Torii joins UT Austin faculty

Photo Credit: Courtesy of Dr. Keiko Torii | Daily Texan Staff

Published on April 25, 2019 at 11:49 pm


Plant biologist Keiko Torii will be joining UT’s molecular bioscience department this coming fall and continuing her research into stomata and how plant cells grow. 

Torii is a part of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator Program, which supports researchers known for their scientific discoveries, and has been studying the development and patterning of stomata. Her research led to the discovery that plants use peptide hormones as signals in order to control their growth and environmental responses. Peptide hormones are chemical signals that affect the endocrine system in humans and animals.

“Until the early 1990s, scientists assumed that plants must not have peptide hormones like animals do,” Torii said in an email. “My discovery was one of the earliest suggesting that plants, like animals, make use of peptide hormones.” 

Torii made her discovery while doing postdoctoral work in Japan. After identifying the gene responsible for a plant’s size, she cloned a causal gene and saw how similar it was to an animal hormone receptor.



I started this blog of Plant Stomata Encyclopedia without any intention of publishing a book. I am convinced that this Encyclopedia is a never ending story. There will always be researchers publishing new data. That is the reason why I opted for a website (blog), where we (and our followers) are able to complete the Encyclopedia until the end of times.

The day will come that I will hand over the administration of the blog to one or more younger colleagues (fellow stomata researchers). In the meanwhile, I hope that many researchers will be able to contribute to this Encyclopedia by sending missing abstracts (mentioned in our bibliographical lists). Completing such an Encyclopedia is not a task for one single expert.

Prof. Dr. Willem VAN COTTHEM (Ghent University, Belgium)

References and abstracts of publications on plant stomata

We welcome all references and abstracts of publications on plant stomata

Are you doing research work on plant stomata and publishing your findings ? Are you looking for a wider readership ?  Would you like to share your publications with interested readers all over the world ? Well, we have some great news for you: almost 250.000 times professionals have already visited our blog and on a regular basis a couple of hundred experts on stomata are viewing our updates.

We are excited offering a global forum where experts on stomata can share knowledge and learnings.  We are accepting to publish all bibliographical references with their abstracts on plant stomata. Did we miss some of your publications ? So sorry ! Please do not hesitate to complete our Encyclopedia. Your posts should be directly or indirectly related to plant stomata. Matching images (photos, screen shots, videos) are most welcome.  Posts that meet the above guidelines should be submitted via email: ‘’ with the subject ‘Blog Post Submission to Plant Stomata Encyclopedia’.

Up to now we did not succeed finding the abstract (or summary) of a number of publications.  You can find their reference in our bibliographical lists. Should you possess some of these missing abstracts, please send them to our email address.  Sincere thanks for your valuable contribution.

We look forward to receiving your submissions.

Prof. Dr. Willem VAN COTTHEM (Ghent University, Belgium)



On Nov. 30, 2018, we launched this project and today we registered our first pioneer: Prof. Dr. Belhadj Safia (University of Djelfa, Algeria).

Please find the updated information concerning this project below:



─ initiated by Prof. Dr. Willem VAN COTTHEM, Ghent University, Belgium

Administrator of “Plant Stomata Encyclopedia”


We suppose that scientists interested in the study of plant stomata would like to know who are the colleagues with similar interests and more specifically in which study fields (domains, categories) these interests are developed.


  1. To create a global list of scientists interested in the study of stomata.
  2. To get an overview of the specific domains in which those scientists are interested.
  3. To give an overview of the groups of experts in these specific domains.


For the classification of the bibliographical references in our PLANT STOMATA ENCYCLOPEDIA we have used up to now a number of categories.  We would like to know in which of these categories you are particularly interested. May we invite you to copy and fill out the submission form below and send a copy of it to ?

Thank you in advance for your kind cooperation.


  1. Expectations

We hope to be enabled to collect a large number of submission forms to get a representative view on “who is who” in the world of plant stomata, thus facilitating contacts between colleagues interested in the same domains.

  1. Time schedule

We want to use the submitted lists step by step to publish an overview on the groups of experts. This overview will figure as one of the categories on our blog. It will be updated gradually and can be consulted permanently.


To be copied and filled out:






Please tick which categories you are interested in:






















OTHER CATEGORIES (Please specify):

Please send this form to