Who can help Florin ?

Please get in contact with Florin.

We received Florin’s message :

Dear Willem,

My name is Florin Pendea and I am a researcher at Lakehead University in Canada. I am currently working on a paleoecological study from the Far East and I have come across a stomata on one of my pollen slides and I was wondering if you could help me identify it based on your extensive expertise on this topic.

The sediment is 30,000 years old and the presence of stomata is quite rare for this time period. My knowledge on stomata is limited but I suspect it could be from Alnus based on the presence of papillae on the guard cells. Would it be possible for you to take a look at the photos attached and tell me what you think?

I would very much appreciate it.




Florin Pendea PhD

Associate Professor

Departments of Sustainability Sciences and Geography
Lakehead University Orillia

President – Canadian Association of Palynologists

Secretary – Lakehead University Faculty Association

500 University Avenue, Orillia, ON, L3V 0B9, Canada

t: (705) 330-4010 ext. 2653
Fax: (705) 329-4035

e: ifpendea@lakeheadu.ca

w: www.lakeheadu.ca

The importance of this blog for researchers working on stomata

Some are asking me why I continue to complete this PLANT STOMATA ENCYCLOPEDIA.

The answer to that question lies in the way I have been preparing my own PhD (1964-1968) : working for hours and hours, day after day in our university library in Ghent (Belgium), looking for publications on stomata, reading abstract after abstract, reading quickly the articles related to my PhD subject (on morphology of stomata of the Filicopsida), and handwriting (copying) the most interesting parts for later use in my PhD.

How many days did I spend in that library ? How many days have I been handwriting and copying (typing) parts of publications to present them in a comprehensive collection of data (and pictures) in my PhD Thesis ?

Of course, I have enjoyed later on the appearance of modern technologies (xerocopies, photocopies, the first computers, the copy-paste possibilities to store interesting data in files and folders, etc.).

As a MSc. (Botany) I enjoyed for 6 years to be a high school science teacher (biology, chemistry, physics) before returning to the university as an assistant professor in 1964. I was so lucky to be enabled to build a nice career at the Ghent University as a botany and didactics professor, during which I focused a major part of my research work on plant growth in dry regions, participating in the combat of desertification (UNCCD), developing different methods to alleviate malnutrition and hunger.

After I retired in 1994, I have been spending a lot of time at updating continuously a number of my personal blogs and Facebook pages. In January 2015, I decided to start this WordPress blog on PLANT STOMATA ENCYCLOPEDIA, aiming at collecting as much as possible the existing literature references and abstracts on stomata. Remembering the enormous number of days I spent myself screening the literature, my main goal was to help the modern researchers on stomata with a complete collection of data (references and abstracts) that could offer them a considerable gain of time for their own research work.

Today, noticing that this Blog on Stomata has already registered more than 462.000 hits, I consider it as an important success. It encourages me to continue this work, bringing me every day the joy that my efforts are seemingly appreciated by my colleagues THE ACTUAL STOMATA EXPERTS.

Wishing all of you a lot of success with your interesting work.


Keiko Torii joins UT Austin faculty

Plant biologist Keiko Torii joins UT Austin faculty


Photo Credit: Courtesy of Dr. Keiko Torii | Daily Texan Staff

Published on April 25, 2019 at 11:49 pm


Plant biologist Keiko Torii will be joining UT’s molecular bioscience department this coming fall and continuing her research into stomata and how plant cells grow. 

Torii is a part of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator Program, which supports researchers known for their scientific discoveries, and has been studying the development and patterning of stomata. Her research led to the discovery that plants use peptide hormones as signals in order to control their growth and environmental responses. Peptide hormones are chemical signals that affect the endocrine system in humans and animals.

“Until the early 1990s, scientists assumed that plants must not have peptide hormones like animals do,” Torii said in an email. “My discovery was one of the earliest suggesting that plants, like animals, make use of peptide hormones.” 

Torii made her discovery while doing postdoctoral work in Japan. After identifying the gene responsible for a plant’s size, she cloned a causal gene and saw how similar it was to an animal hormone receptor.



I started this blog of Plant Stomata Encyclopedia without any intention of publishing a book. I am convinced that this Encyclopedia is a never ending story. There will always be researchers publishing new data. That is the reason why I opted for a website (blog), where we (and our followers) are able to complete the Encyclopedia until the end of times.

The day will come that I will hand over the administration of the blog to one or more younger colleagues (fellow stomata researchers). In the meanwhile, I hope that many researchers will be able to contribute to this Encyclopedia by sending missing abstracts (mentioned in our bibliographical lists). Completing such an Encyclopedia is not a task for one single expert.

Prof. Dr. Willem VAN COTTHEM (Ghent University, Belgium)

References and abstracts of publications on plant stomata

We welcome all references and abstracts of publications on plant stomata

Are you doing research work on plant stomata and publishing your findings ? Are you looking for a wider readership ?  Would you like to share your publications with interested readers all over the world ? Well, we have some great news for you: almost 250.000 times professionals have already visited our blog and on a regular basis a couple of hundred experts on stomata are viewing our updates.

We are excited offering a global forum where experts on stomata can share knowledge and learnings.  We are accepting to publish all bibliographical references with their abstracts on plant stomata. Did we miss some of your publications ? So sorry ! Please do not hesitate to complete our Encyclopedia. Your posts should be directly or indirectly related to plant stomata. Matching images (photos, screen shots, videos) are most welcome.  Posts that meet the above guidelines should be submitted via email: ‘willem.vancotthem@gmail.com’ with the subject ‘Blog Post Submission to Plant Stomata Encyclopedia’.

Up to now we did not succeed finding the abstract (or summary) of a number of publications.  You can find their reference in our bibliographical lists. Should you possess some of these missing abstracts, please send them to our email address.  Sincere thanks for your valuable contribution.

We look forward to receiving your submissions.

Prof. Dr. Willem VAN COTTHEM (Ghent University, Belgium)



On Nov. 30, 2018, we launched this project and today we registered our first pioneer: Prof. Dr. Belhadj Safia (University of Djelfa, Algeria).

Please find the updated information concerning this project below:



─ initiated by Prof. Dr. Willem VAN COTTHEM, Ghent University, Belgium

Administrator of “Plant Stomata Encyclopedia”


We suppose that scientists interested in the study of plant stomata would like to know who are the colleagues with similar interests and more specifically in which study fields (domains, categories) these interests are developed.


  1. To create a global list of scientists interested in the study of stomata.
  2. To get an overview of the specific domains in which those scientists are interested.
  3. To give an overview of the groups of experts in these specific domains.


For the classification of the bibliographical references in our PLANT STOMATA ENCYCLOPEDIA we have used up to now a number of categories.  We would like to know in which of these categories you are particularly interested. May we invite you to copy and fill out the submission form below and send a copy of it to willem.vancotthem@gmail.com ?

Thank you in advance for your kind cooperation.


  1. Expectations

We hope to be enabled to collect a large number of submission forms to get a representative view on “who is who” in the world of plant stomata, thus facilitating contacts between colleagues interested in the same domains.

  1. Time schedule

We want to use the submitted lists step by step to publish an overview on the groups of experts. This overview will figure as one of the categories on our blog. It will be updated gradually and can be consulted permanently.


To be copied and filled out:






Please tick which categories you are interested in:






















OTHER CATEGORIES (Please specify):

Please send this form to willem.vancotthem@gmail.com.




Today, we are still looking for the abstracts of a number of articles.  It would be nice if you could help us to get some of them.

We would be extremely thankful if you could send them to:




Baranova, M. (1981) – On the laterocytic type of stomatal apparatus in flowering plants. – Bot. Zhurn. 66: 179–186 (In Russian) – Google Scholar – (Article not found)

Baranova M. A.. (1992) – The epidermal structure and systematic position of Austrobaileyaceae. Botanicheskii Zhurnal (Leningrad) 77: 1-17. (No abstract found – Who can send us one ?)

Doyle J. A., Donoghue M. J. (1986) – Seed plant phylogeny and the origin of angiosperms: an experimental cladistic approach. – Bot. Rev. 52. 321-431. (Article not found)

Prabhakar M., Ramayya N., Leelavathi P. (1984) – Structure and distribution of epidermal elements in the angiosperms. Ⅰ. Epidermal cell complex. – Geophytology, 14:55-68 – (Article not found)

Ziegler E., Farquhar G. D., Cowan I. R. (1987) – Stomatal Funcion – Stanford University Press – (Article not found)



Pressel S., Renzaglia K. S., Duckett, J. G. (2011) – Hornworts: a new look at stomatal evolution. – In: XVIII International Botanical Congress, Melbourne, abstract book, pp. 237. – (No abstract found – Who can send us one ?)



Boudier P. (1988) – Différenciation structurale de l’èpiderme du sporogone chez Sphagnum fimbriatum Wilson. – Annales des Sciences Naturelles Botanique, Paris 1986-1987, vol. 8, no3-4, pp. 143-156. – (No abstract found – Who can send us one ?)

Duckett J. G.Ligrone R. (2004) – There are many ways of making water-conducting cells but what about stomata? – Field Bryology 823233. – (No abstract found – Who can send us one ?)

Kuhlbrodt H. (1922) – Über die phylogenetische entwicklung des Spaltȍffnungsapparates am Sporophyten der Moose. – Beiträge Allgemeine Botanik, 2: 363402. – (No abstract found – Who can send us one ?)



Bobrov A. E. (1962) – Comparative studies of the epidermis and the stomates of the leaves of Cycadaceae. – Bot. Zhurn. 47: 808–820. (In Russian) – Google Scholar – (Article not found)

Karzel R. (1908) – Die Verholzung der Spaltöffnungen bei Cycadeen. – Wiesner-Festschrift (Article not found).

Shapiro S. (1949) – The presence of stomata on the nucellus of Zamia floridana – (Abstract) – Amer. J. Bot. 36: 803 – (Article not found)



AbdulRahaman A. A., Oladele F. A. (2005) – Stomata, trichomes, and epidermal cells as diagnostic features in six species of genus Ocimum L. (Lamiaceae). – Niger. J. Bot. 18, 214-222. (No abstract found – Who can send us one ?)

Abubakar B. Y., Yunusa A. I. (1998) – Epidermal structure and stomatal ontogeny as an aid to the taxonomic identification of some species of Acacia (Leguminosae – Mimosoideae) from Nigeria. – Niger. J. Bot. 11, 117-123. (No abstract found – Who can send us one ?)

Adegbite A. K. (1995) – Leaf epidermal studies in three of Nigerian species of Aspilia (Heliantheae – Asteraceae) and two hybrids. Niger. J. Bot. 18, 25-33. (No abstract found – Who can send us one ?)

Ahmad K. J. (1979) – Taxonomic Significance of Epidermal Characters in Acanthaceae. – In  “Progress in Plant Research” (Ed. – Khoshoo, T. N. and Nair, P. K. K.) Silver Publication, National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, India. 1: 135 – 160. (No abstract found – Who can send us one ?)

Ahmad K. J. (1979) – Stomatal features of Acanthaceae. In Structure, Function and Ecology of Stomata, pp.43-60. Ed. DN Sen (Bishen Sing Mahendra Pal Sing; Dehradun, India). (No abstract found – Who can send us one ?).

Ahmad K., Khan M. A., Ahmad M., Zafar M. Arshad M., Ahmad F. (2009) – Taxonomic diversity of stomata in dicot flora of a district tank (N.W.F.P.) in Pakistan –

Arraes M. A. B. (1970) – Significacao estatestica do indice estomatica em especies do genera Cassia L. – Boletim Cearense de Agronomia, Brazil 11: 31-38 – (Article not found)

Ayodele A. E. (2000) – Foliar epidermal characteristics of the genus Plumbago L. (Plumbaginaceae) in Nigeria – Nig. J. Sci. 34(1): 9-13. (Article not found)

Baas P. (1985) – Comparative leaf anatomy of Pernettya Gaud. (Ericaceae) – Bot. Jahrb. Syst.105: 481–495 – Google Scholar – c.50 specimens. hairs, stomata, hypodermis, sclerenchyma. Comparison with Gaultheria. Ericaceae **, Ecological anatomy, Leaf anatomy (PMBD, 185800524). (No abstract found).

Baderinwa A., Moraviniyo J. A. (2002) – Comparative study of foliar epidermis in three species of Corchorus L. – Nigerian Journal of Botany 15: 1-6. – (No abstract found – Who can send us one ?)

Banerjee G., Mukherjee A. (2001) – Pharmacognostic studies on Portulaca oleracea L. I. Leaf. In (eds) J. K. Maheshwari and A. P. Jain Recent researches in plant anatomy and morphhology, Scientific Publishers (India), Jodhpur, pp. 69-78. (No abstract found – Who can send us one ?t)

Baranova M. (1969) – Comparative stomatographic investigations in the genus Manglietia B1. – Bot. Zhurn. 54: 1952–1964 (In Russian) – Google Scholar – (Article not found)

Baranova M. (1975) – Classification of ontogenetic types of stomates (on the appearance of the publication of Fryns-Claessens and van Cotthem) – Bot. Zhurn. 60: 280–297. (In Russian.) – Google Scholar – (Article not found)

Baranova M. (1975) – Stomatographic investigations in the family Flagellariaceae. Bot Zhurn. –60: 1690–1697. (In Russian.)  – Google Scholar – – (Article not found)

Baranova M. A. (1980) – Comparative stomatographic investigations in the families Buxaceae and Simmondsiaceae. – Pages 68–75 in S. G. Zhilin (ed.), Systematics and evolution of higher plants. Soviet Sciences Press, Leningrad. – Google Scholar – (Article not found)

Baranova M. A. (1985) – Classification of the morphological types of stomates – Bot. Zhurn. 70: 1585–1595. (In Russian.) – Google Scholar– (Article not found)

Baranova M. A. (1986) – Comparative stomatographic investigations in the family Chloranthaceae. – Pages 12–19 in Problems of Paleobotany, Soviet Sciences Press, Leningrad. (In Russian) – Google Scholar – (Article not found)

Baranova M. A. (1987) – On the stephanocytic type of stomatal apparatus in flowering plants – Bot. Zhurn. 72: 59–62. (In Russian.) – Google Scholar– (Article not found)

Baranova M. A. (1987) – O stefanotsitnom tipe ustichnogo apparata u tsvetkovykh. – Botanicheskii Zhurnal SSSR 7259-62 (in Russian) – (Article not found)

Baranova M. A. (1987) – Historical development of the present classification of morphological types of stomates – Bot. Rev. 53: 53–79 – CrossRef Google Scholar– (Article not found)

Baranova M. A., Ostroumova T. A. (1987) – Stomatal characters in systematics. Pages 173–192 in M. G. Pimenov (ed.), Review of science and technology. Botany, Vol. 6. (In Russian) – Google Scholar– (Article not found)

Bessis J., Guyot M. (1973) – Les types stomatiques chez les Solanacées – C. R. 96ème Congr. natl. Soc. Sav. Toulouse (1971) T. V: 289-298 – (Article not found)

Bessis J., Guyot M. (1979) – An attempt to use stomatal characters in systematic and phylogenetic studies of the Solanaceae. Biology and taxonomy of the Solanaceae. – Linn. Soc. Symposium Series 7 – Google Scholar – (Article not found)

Bhatia R. Y. P., Prabhakar M., Rao T. S. (1988) – Dermotype studies on different cultivars of Beedi tobacco in relation to forensic science. – J. Indian Acad. For Sci;, 26: 1-11. (No abstract found – Who can send us one ?)

Bhatia R. Y. P., Prabhakar M., Verma H. K. (1986) – Forensic studies of poisonous and medicinal plants-Ⅱ Calatropis gigantia R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae). – J. Indian Acad. For Sci., 25: 15-22. (No abstract found – Who can send us one ?)

Bhatt D. C. (2001) – Structure and development of stomata in some Sapotaceae. – J. Econ. Taxon. Bot., add. ser. No. 19. 93-97. 581.4 REC. – 6 spp. Achras, Chryzophyllum, Madhuca, Mimusops, Manilkara, Sideroxylon. (No abstract found – Who can send us one ?)

Bora N., Baruah P. (1979) – Contiguous stomata in Desmodium Desv. (Papilionaceae). Current Sci. 48: 27-28. (No abstract found – Who can send us one ?).

Bravo S. J., Grau A. (1992) – Variaciones de la densidad estomática en poblaciones de Alnus acuminata en un gradiente altitudinal – Lilloa38: 39-45 (No abstract found)

Caspari H. (1883) – Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Hautgewebes der Cacteen – Zeitschr. für Naturwiss. 56: 30-80 – (Article not found)

Chappet A. (1969) – L’appareil stomatique de Vicia faba L. – D.U.E.S., Fac. Dijon, France (Article not found)

Chaudhary N. Y., Imran M. (1997) – Comparative study of stomata in some members of Malvaceae and Euphorbiaceae. – Pak. J. Pl. Sci., 3(1): 33- 45. (No abstract found – Who can send us one ?).

Chen Z. l. (1996) – The morphology and anatomy of Sonneratia Linn. in China. – J. Trop. Subtropical Bot. 4: 18-24. (Article not found)

Choudhury S. R., Anand P. S. B., Reddy G. P., Sahoo N., Verma H. N. (2002) – Stomatal distribution, leaf anatomy and leaf age dependent photosynthesis behaviour of water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa) leaves.

Cole D. F., Dobrenz A. K. (1970) – Stomate density of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) – Crop Sci. 10: 61-63 – (Study: Vazzana C, Puliga S, Bochicchio A, Raschi A. 1988 Study of the stomatal density in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. )ecotype. Riv. agron. 22. 127-32.) – (Article not found)

Cutler D. F. (1969) – Cuticular markings and other epidermal features in aloe leaves. – Notes Jodrell Laboratory 6: 21- 27 – (Article not found)
Das S., Ghose M. (1997) – Development of stomata and leaf hairs in some mangroves. Phytomorphology 47, 389–394. – Euph:Excoecaria, Sterc:Heritiera, Lyth:Sonneratia, Rhiz:Bruguiera, Rhizophora. Line drawings. (No abstract found – Who can send us one ?)
Décamps O. (1985) – Variabilité de l’appareil stomatique des Renonculacées – Bull. Hist. Nat. Toulouse 121: 137-140 (Article not found)