Stomata in Japanese Selaginellaceae


Systematic importance of the epidermal elements in the leaves of the Japanese Selaginellaceae

by Satake Y. (1934)

in Bot. Mag. Tokyo 48: 259-278 – –

Twenty four species of the Japanese Selaginellae are examined for the purpose of discussing the systematic importance of the epidermal elements of leaves.


Stomatal control and gene signalling networks in bryophytes and lycophytes


Early evolutionary acquisition of stomatal control and development gene signalling networks.

by Chater C., Gray J. E., Beerling D. J. (2013)

Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK.

in Current Opinion in Plant Biology 16 : 638 – 646  – doi: 10.1016/j.pbi.2013.06.013. –


Fossil stomata of early vascular land plants date back over 418 million years and exhibit properties suggesting that they were operational, including differentially thickened guard cells and sub-stomatal chambers.

Molecular studies on basal land plant groups (bryophytes and lycophytes) provide insight into the core genes involved in sensing and translating changes in the drought hormone abscisic acid (ABA), light and concentration of CO2 into changes in stomatal aperture.

These studies indicate that early land plants probably possessed the genetic tool kits for stomata to actively respond to environmental/endogenous cues. With these ancestral molecular genetic tool kits in place, stomatal regulation of plant carbon and water relations may have became progressively more effective as hydraulic systems evolved in seed plant lineages.

Gene expression and cross-species gene complementation studies suggest that the pathway regulating stomatal fate may also have been conserved across land plant evolution.

This emerging area offers a fascinating glimpse into the potential genetic tool kits used by the earliest vascular land plants to build and operate the stomata preserved in the fossil record.


Stomata in Lycophytes and Ferns


Epidermal micromorphology of leaves of some Lycophytes and Ferns

by Mazumdar J., Mukhopadhyay R. (2012)

Jaideep Mazumdar, The University of Burdwan, India

Radhanath Mukhopadhyay

UGC Centre for Advanced Study, Department of Botany, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan- 713104, India


in Indian Fern J. 29: 76-85. –


Micromorphological features of leaf epidermis, with emphasis on surface micromorphology of epidermal cells and stomata of 18 species of ferns and 4 species of fern allies of different genera and families were studied and found to be useful as additional taxonomic character.

Stomata in Lycopodium (Lycopsida)

Photo credit: Google

Lycopodium japonicum

The stomatal apparatus of Lycopodium japonicum and its bearing on the stomata of the Devonian lycophyte Drepanophycus spinaeformis.

by Sun T.-X., Edwards D., Li C.-S. (2005)

Tong-Xing SUN, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiangshan, Beijing

Dianne EDWARDS, School of Earth, Ocean and Planetary Sciences, Cardiff University, UK

Cheng-Sen LI, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093, China

in Bot J Linn Soc 149 209–216. – DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8339.2005.00434.x –


The structure of the stomatal apparatus of the leaf of Lycopodium japonicum Thumb was studied using epidermal macerations, sections and scanning electron microscopy. The stomatal apparatus of L. japonicum consists of two large guard cells and pore, and is anomocytic.

Based on light microscopy, the impression from epidermal macerations that there were two small guard cells surrounded by two, large, similarly shaped, subsidiary cells (paracytic) derives from a pronounced elliptical cuticular ledge on the surface of the guard cells surrounding a thickened circumporal area.

A similar appearance is characteristic of cuticle preparations of the Devonian lycophyte Drepanophycus spinaeformis Göppert. We therefore conclude, as did W.H. Lang over 70 years ago, that the stomata of the early lycophyte were also anomocytic, as were those of a second species of Drepanophycus, D. qujingensis Li & Edwards.