Citrus species have a water-conserving stomatal system (Rutaceae)

Photo credit: Google

Citrus reticulata Blanco – Mandarin Orange, Tangerine

Water-conserving stomatal systems in selected Citrus species

by Obiremi E. O., Oladele F. A. (2001)

Department of Biological Sciences, University of llorin, llorin, Kwara State, Nigeria

in S. Afri. J. Bot. 67: 258-260. – https://doi.org/10.1016/S0254-6299(15)31127-3 –

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0254629915311273

Leaves of Citrus limon, C. aurantifolia, C. sinensis and C. reticulata have small stomata, which are predominantly paracytic, and occur with a frequency of 80–100%.

All species showed low stomatal transpiration rates (1.20 × 10−5–1.18 × 10−3mol m−2sec−1) and there was no evidence for stomatal density as a factor.

In addition to paracytic stomata, other stomatal types observed include hemi-paracytic in C. paradisi, brachy-paracytic in C. reticulata and anomocytic in C. sinensis and C. reticulata. In the latter two species there were also anomocytic stomata, with five or more epidermal cells having direct contact with each stoma and the level of transpiration was higher than in the other three species.

These results suggest that Citrus species have a water-conserving system, which may make the species suitable for afforestation of dry areas.

Stomata and transpiration rates in tuber species

Stomatal complex types and transpiration rates in some tropical tuber species

by Saadu R. O., Abdulrahaman A. A., Oladele F. A. (2009)

University of Ilorin, Nigeria

in African Journal of Plant Science Vol. 3 (5), pp. 107-112 – Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJPS

http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1380095359_Saadu%20et%20al.pdf

Abstract

Anatomical study of the leaf epidermis in 6 tuber species namely Manihot esculenta Crantz, Cyperus esculentus Linn. Ipomoea batatas Linn., Xanthosoma sagittifolium Schott, Colocasia esculenta Schott and Caladium hortulanum Vent was conducted.

Among these species, only C. esculenta has epistomatic leaves with stomata occurring only on the adaxial or upper surface of the leaf. The remaining 5 species have amphistomatic leaves, with stomata on both surfaces of the leaf. M. esculenta, C. esculentus and I. batatas have paracytic stomatal complex type with a frequency of 100%, while X. sagittifolium, C. esculenta and C. hortulanum have brachy-paracytic stomatal complex type with a frequency of 100%.

Species with stomatal density range of 22 – 26 stomata per square millimetre, namely I. batatas, X. sagittifolium, C. esculentus and C. esculenta were the most transpiring with high potentials for humidification of the atmosphere. Those species with the density range of 16 – 21 stomata per square millimetre, namely C. hortulanum and M. esculenta were the least transpiring with low humidification potentials.

There was no positive correlation between stomatal size and transpiration rate as C. hortulanum with the highest stomatal size had the least rate of transpiration. However, stomatal index, that is, the % spread of stomata was positively correlated with transpiration as I. batatas with the highest stomatal index of 20.94 had the highest rate of transpiration.

Massive cultivation of these tuberous species through intercropping with tree species may help in combating drought and desertification processes. Since these tubers with the exception of C. hortulanum are edible, there is added advantage of increased food production, through this suggested cropping system. I. batatas being a creeping plant can also be a useful cover crop as part of conservation measures for desertified or exposed areas.

Stomata and a water-conserving system in Citrus

Photo credit: Google

Citrus paradisi

Water-conserving stomatal systems in selected Citrus species.

by Obiremi E. O., Oladele F. A. (2001)

in South African Journal of Botany, 67: 258-260. – DOI: 10.1016/S0254-6299(15)31127-3 –

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/289177159_Water_conserving_stomatal_systems_in_selected_Citrus_species

Abstract
Leaves of Citrus limon, C. aurantifolia, C. sinensis and C. reticulata have small stomata, which are predominantly paracytic, and occur with a frequency of 80-100%.
All species showed low stomatal transpiration rates (1.20 × 10-5-1.18 × 10-3mol m-2sec-1) and there was no evidence for stomatal density as a factor.
In addition to paracytic stomata, other stomatal types observed include hemi-paracytic in C. paradisi, brachy-paracytic in C. reticulata and anomocytic in C. sinensis and C. reticulata.
In the latter two species there were also anomocytic stomata, with five or more epidermal cells having direct contact with each stoma and the level of transpiration was higher than in the other three species.
These results suggest that Citrus species have a water-conserving system, which may make the species suitable for afforestation of dry areas.

Stomata and global warming

Global warming and stomatal complex types.

by Abdulrahaman A. A., Oladele F. A. (2008)

University of Ilorin, Nigeria

Ethnobotanical Leaflets, 12: 553-556

Available at: http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/ebl/vol2008/iss1/72

Global_Warming_and_Stomatal_Complex_Type.pdf

Abstract

Ozone depletion and its ultimate effect, global warming are main concerns in climate change in the world today. The phrase ‘climate change’ is growing in preferred use to ‘global warming’ because it helps convey that there are changes in addition to rising temperatures. Accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere depleted the ozone layer and consequently causes global warming. Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere are often called greenhouse gases. That the Earth has warmed by 0.74oC over the last hundred years and that around 0.4oC of this warming has occurred since the 1970s is unequivocal fact that leaves little room for doubt that human activity is the primary driver of these changes (May, 2006). Among factors that emit the greenhouse gases into the atmosphere are burning of woods (fuel woods) and deforestation. Removal of plants on the surface of planet Earth is no doubt contributing greatly to the accumulation of greenhouse gases and thus the global warming.

World leaders, public health specialists, engineers, atmospheric chemists, hydrologists, quantum physicists, mathematicians, botanists, zoologists, have all being striving to stop further release of more greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, and in the occurrence of these gases, they are trying to purifying or cleansing them.

One of the cleaners or purifiers that can be employed is stomata. Stomata are microscopic openings or pores located majorly on the abaxial or lower, and adaxial or upper surfaces of leaves of plants. Though sometimes, stomata are present on the stems, petioles and sepals but in very small number.

Water use by stomata of Jatropha and Canna

Photo credit: Insight Knowledge

Fig. 1: Surface view of leaf epidermis, abaxial (A) and adaxial (B) of Jatropha gossypifolia propagated with 20 cc daily watering regime showing paracytic (p) and brachyparacytic (b) stomata and unicellular (u) and multicellular (m) trichomes x2000

Anatomical Basis for Optimal Use of Water for Maintenance of Some Mesophytic Plants.

by Abdulrahaman A. A., Oladele F. A. (2011)

in  Insight Botany, 1: 28-38 – DOI: 10.5567/BOTANY-IK.2011.28.38 –

http://insightknowledge.co.uk/fulltext/?doi=BOTANY-IK.2011.28.38

fig3-2k11-28-38
Fig. 3: Surface view of leaf epidermis, abaxial (A) and adaxial (B) of Canna indica propagated with 2.5 cc daily watering regime showing paracytic (p) and brachyparacytic (b) stomata x1600 – http://docsdrive.com/images/insightknowledge/BOTANY-IK/2011/fig3-2k11-28-38.gif

ABSTRACT:

Background: One of the strategies for mitigation of global warming and climate change is growing of more green plants. This translates to the need of water for their sustenance and against the backdrop of global water crisis; there is the need for conservation of water and prevention or minimization of water wastage in irrigation. One of the ways to reduce water wastage is lowering the frequency of watering.

Materials and methods: In this study, 3 mesophytic plants namely Jatropha curcas, Jatropha gossypifolia and Canna indica were subjected to 4 watering frequencies i.e. daily weekly, biweekly and monthly under 5 varying soil moisture contents namely 1.25, 2.25, 5, 10 and 20%. This was to determine the anatomical adaptations of the species to water stress with a view to determining the low watering regimes that can sustain them.

Results: Jatropha curcas was the most tolerant of water stress with capacity to survive and thrive at daily watering regime of 25 to 100 cc. This was possibly attributable to presence of trichome density and low transpiration rate of 4.53×10-9mol/m2/sec (abaxial) and 3.77×10-9 mol/m2/sec (adaxial). Canna indica was the least tolerant of water stress possibly due to absence of trichomes and high transpiration rate of 4.72×10-5 mol/m2/sec (abaxial) and 3.88×10-5 mol/m/sec (adaxial).

Conclusion: These 3 species which have high frequency of paracytic and brachyparacytic stomata are potential candidates for revegetation and landscape exercises with minimal use of water. Recommended daily watering regimes are 25 to 100 cc for Jatropha curcas, 200 cc for J. gossypifolia and 400 cc for Canna indica.

 

Stomatal features in Dioscorea (monocots)

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Stomatal complex types, stomatal density and the stomatal index in some species of Dioscorea

by AbdulRahaman A. A., Egbedo F. O., Oladele F. A. (2009)

abdullahi-alanamu_abdulrahaman
Abdullahi-Alanamu Abdulrahaman, University of Ilorin, Nigeria

F.O. Egbedo, University of Ilorin, Nigeria

felix_oladele
Felix Oladele, University of Ilorin, Nigeria

in Arch. Biol. Sci., Belgrade, 61 (4), 847-851, 2009 –

http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0354-4664/2009/0354-46640904847A.pdf 

Abstract

Dioscorea alata L. has three stomatal complex types, namely, paracytic, anisocytic, and tetracytic stomata, with percentage frequency values of 50, 18, and 32, respectively.

Dioscorea bulbifera has paracytic and anisocytic stomata, with percentage frequency values of 87.60 and 12.40, respectively.

Dioscorea cayenensis has anisocytic stomata, with a percentage frequency value of 100.

Dioscorea dumetorum has tetracytic and paractytic stomata, with percentage frequency values of 91.05 and 8.95, respectively.

Both D. esculenta and D. rotundata have paracytic stomata, with a percentage frequency of 100.

The range of variation of stomatal density is from 10 (lowest value) in D. alata and D. dumentorum to 27 (highest value) in D. bulbifera.

The stomatal index also varies, from 24 in D. alata to 47 in D. cayenensis.

The size of stomata in all species is small, varying in length from 0.74 µm in D. alata to 1.79 µm in D. dumentorum.

An indented dichotomous key based on stomatal features was constructed to distinguish and identify the species.

Stomata and transpiration rates

 

Stomatal complex types and transpiration rates in some tropical tuber species

by Saadu R. O., AbdulRahaman A. A., Oladele F. A. (2009)

in African Journal of Plant Science, 3(5): 107-112. –

http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1380095359_Saadu%20et%20al.pdf 

Figure 1. Leaf surface view of M. esculenta. Showing paracytic stomata (g = Guard cell, s = Subsidiary cell) and epidermal cell (e) x600. - https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRerC-_qV2dkFbmHltALA_vGRJiu5zUR3XnplztEwomTD0SKlxq
Figure 1. Leaf surface view of M. esculenta.
Showing paracytic stomata (g = Guard cell, s =
Subsidiary cell) and epidermal cell (e) x600. – https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRerC-_qV2dkFbmHltALA_vGRJiu5zUR3XnplztEwomTD0SKlxq

Abstract

Anatomical study of the leaf epidermis in 6 tuber species namely Manihot esculenta Crantz, Cyperus esculentus Linn. Ipomoea batatas Linn., Xanthosoma sagittifolium Schott, Colocasia esculenta Schott and Caladium hortulanum Vent was conducted.

Among these species, only C. esculenta has epistomatic leaves with stomata occurring only on the adaxial or upper surface of the leaf. The remaining 5 species have amphistomatic leaves, with stomata on both surfaces of the leaf.

M. esculenta, C. esculentus and I. batatas have paracytic stomatal complex type with a frequency of 100%, while X. sagittifolium, C. esculenta and C. hortulanum have brachy-paracytic stomatal complex type with a frequency of 100%.

Screen Shot 2017-11-08 at 20.37.21

Species with stomatal density range of 22 – 26 stomata per square millimetre, namely I. batatas, X. sagittifolium, C. esculentus and C. esculenta were the most transpiring with high potentials for humidification of the atmosphere. Those species with the density range of 16 – 21 stomata per square millimetre, namely C. hortulanum and M. esculenta were the least transpiring with low humidification potentials.

There was no positive correlation between stomatal size and transpiration rate as C. hortulanum with the highest stomatal size had the least rate of transpiration. However, stomatal index, that is, the % spread of stomata was positively correlated with transpiration as I. batatas with the highest stomatal index of 20.94 had the highest rate of transpiration.

Massive cultivation of these tuberous species through intercropping with tree species may help in combating drought and desertification processes. Since these tubers with the exception of C. hortulanum are edible, there is added advantage of increased food production, through this suggested cropping system. I. batatas being a creeping plant can also be a useful cover crop as part of conservation measures for desertified or exposed areas.

Read the full article: Academic Journals

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