Stomata in Bergenia ciliata (Saxifragaceae)


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Bergenia ciliata

Pharmacognostic evaluation of Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb

by Khan S. A., Dastagir G., Ullah B., Ullah S., Ahmad I., Ali U. (2017)

in Pure and Applied Biology. Vol. 6, Issue2, pp. 762-775. – DOI: 10.19045/bspab.2017.60081

Shafqat Ali Khan1*, Department of Botany Islamia College, Peshawar-Pakistan


Ghulam Dastagir2, Department of Botany University of Peshawar-Pakistan

Barkat Ullah, Islamia College Peshawar ,

Sami Ullah2, Department of Botany University of Peshawar-Pakistan

Izhar Ahmad1, Department of Botany Islamia College, Peshawar-Pakistan

Usman Ali3, Centre of Plant Biodiversity University of Peshawar-Pakistan

1. Department of Botany Islamia College, Peshawar-Pakistan
2. Department of Botany University of Peshawar-Pakistan
3. Centre of Plant Biodiversity University of Peshawar-Pakistan


The present study was conducted to investigate the Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. (Family: Saxifragaceae) for pharmacognostic study including macroscopical and microscopical observations, leaf surface features, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Fluorescence characters.

The macroscopy revealed that rhizome was brown in color, hard in fracture, pleasant in odor and astringent in taste. Leaf was cordate, green in color and indistinct in taste and odour, while microscopy of rhizome and leaf showed typical dicot histological differentiation.

Leaf was amphistomatic having anomocytic stomata on both the epidermises. The quantitative leaf study showed that the stomatal numbers of upper and lower epidermises were (20± 0.7) and (24.2 ± 2.7) (average ± SEM), while stomatal index was (15.6 ± 2.6) and (27.4 ± 3.9) respectively.

Vein islet and vein termination number was (20.6 ± 4.09 and 26.6 ± 5.01), while palisade ratio remained (12.3 ± 3.71). SEM of the powder showed non-glandular trichomes, spiral vessels, parenchymatous tissues and fragments of epidermis with anomocytic stomata.

Fluorescence study indicates different shadows of colors like brown, black, greenish, yellowish, red, brown, dark black, pink etc. that revealed the presence of different fluorescent chemical compounds.

The current research was done for the first time on Bergenia and might be beneficial for its accurate identification, standardization and will give a base for its pharmacognistic applications.


Stomata in Rhus (Dicots)


Pharmacognostic evaluation of the leaf of Rhus succedana var. himalaica J. D. Hooker

by Kahn S. A., Ibrar M., Ullah B. (2016)

Shafqat Ali Kahn, University of Peshawar, Pakistan.
Muhammad Ibrar, University of Peshawar, Pakistan
Barkat Ullah, Islamia College Peshawar, Pakistan


in African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 13(6):107-120  –

Background: Rhus succedanea is generally traded, distributed and sold in the markets in its crude and raw form. This may have been mixed with adulterants, mismanaged by malpractices and substituted with other closely related drugs having different effect. This study is therefore carried out to authenticate the plant through pharmacogonostic evaluations.
Material & Methods: The organoleptic studies were carried through sensory organs i.e size, shape, texrure, odour, etc. Histological studies were conducted by preparing hand slides, mounting the specimen in potato tuber; fluorescence characters were determined through UV and phytochemical screening was investigated using various standard and common methods from relevant literature.
Results: Morphologically, the Rhus is a perennial small sized deciduous tree, 5–9 m tall with opposite imparipinnately compound leaves and small grayish yellow flowers born on paniculate inflorescence; locally, called as Rakhkal in Pashto and Kakarsingi in Urdu.
The organoleptic evaluation showed leaf had pleasant, aromatic odour and astringent taste. Transverse section of leaf through midrib region was worked out. The anatomy of the midrib has shown to be surrounded by both upper and lower epidermis with multicellular non-glandular trichomes.
The leaf was hypostomatic showing anomocytic stomata with average stomatal number 27.1 ± 7.2 and stomatal index 14 ± 3.63.
The average vein islet, vein termination and palisade ratios were 13.6 ± 3.04, 10.21 ± 1.92 and 6 ± 2.01 respectively. Leaf powder showed the existance of anomocytic stomata, spirally thickened xylem vessels, non-glandular multicellular and stellate trichomes. Fluorescence study and percent extractive values was also carried out.
The phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrates, protein, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids and anthraquenones, while tannins and fixed oil was not detected. Quantitatively highest amount of alkaloids 16% and flavonoids 19% in leaf was detected.
Conclusion: The results of the of the anatomical, organoleptic and physiochemical studies of the powder of leaf will be helpful in standardization of R. succedanea the crude drug.