Stomata in Pongamiapinnata (Fabaceae)


Photo credit: Research Gate

Fig 3: Lower epidermis with large number of stomata. stomatal number 133.3 ± 7.47 per mm 2 and stomatal index 28.7 ± 1.40 per mm 2 . Paracytic type of stomata is present. Stomatal cluster was not observed.  

Pharmacognostic Studies of Pongamiapinnata (Fabaceae)

by Rajyalakshmi E., Khan  S. A., Basha S. K. M., Barkatullah Dr. (2016)

E Rajyalakshmi, Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore

Shafqat Ali Kahn, University of Peshawar, Pakistan.
Basha S. K. M., NBKR Medicinal Plant Research Centre, Vidyanagar
Barkatullah Dr., Assistant professor, Islamia college, University of- Peshawar, Pakistan

in Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR) 2(4), 485-491.

Pharmacognostic studies of Pongamiapinnata (Fabaceae) were carried out. Pongamiapinnata is a medium-sized tree with long taproot, slender stem and compound leaves used for treatment of tumors, piles, skin diseases, itches, abscess, painful rheumatic joints wounds, ulcers, in liver disease, diarrhea to reduces swelling of the spleen, anti-diabetic in Pakistan,India and other countries.
The phytochemical screening of the leaf and bark extract revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, fats, fixed oils, phenols, alkaloids and absence of proteins. Fluorescence study showed that plant contains different chemical constituents give different colors under visible and ultraviolet light.
Anatomical examination has revealed the occurrence of paracytic stomata with two guard cells, wavy epidermal cells, mesophyll tissue and vascular trace.
Anatomically, stem is divided into epidermis, cortex, phloem parenchyma, fibers and stone cells. The powder microscopy of leaf showed paracytic stomata, uniseriatetrichomes, parenchymatous cells and tracheids. Similarly bark powder microscopy showed the presence of cork tissues, stone cells and sieve tubes.
The quantitative microscopical studies of leaf were also carried out and various leaf content such as palisade ratio, vein islet number, vein termination number, stomata number, stomatal index.



Stomatal number and stomatal index:

Stomata are minute pores present typically on the lower epidermis of the leaf. Paracytic type of stomata were present in P. pinnata in which stomata and guard cells were surrounded by two parallel subsidiary cells. Wavy type of epidermal cells is present.
In P . pinnata the number of stomata recorded ranged from 104 to 163 and there mean value was 133.5. Similarly the stomatal index calculated for P.pinnata leaf epidermis ranged from 23 to 34.2 and its mean value is 28.7, stomatal number 133.3 ± 7.47 per mm2 and stomatal index 28.7 ± 1.40 per mm2. Paracytic type of stomata is present. Stomatal cluster was not observed.


Pharmacognostic Studies of Pongamiapinnata (Fabaceae). Available from: [accessed Feb 13, 2017].


Stomata in fossil Fagus (Fagaceae)


Fagus (Fagaceae) fruits, foliage, and pollen from the Middle Eocene of Pacific Northwestern North America

by Manchester S. R., Dillhoff R. M. (2004)

Steven R. Manchester and Richard M. Dillhoff

S.R. Manchester, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
R.M. Dillhoff, Evolving Earth Foundation, P.O. Box 2090, Issaquah, WA 98027, USA.


in Can. J. Bot. 82: 1509–1517 (2004) – doi: 10.1139/B04-112


Fruits and leaves from the Middle Eocene of McAbee, British Columbia, and Republic, Washington, provide an earlier record for the genus Fagus than previously accepted for this member of the Fagaceae.

The fruits are trigonal nuts borne within spiny four-valved cupules on long peduncles. The leaves are borne alternately on the twigs and are ovate to elliptic with craspedodromous secondary veins and simple teeth distributed one per secondary vein.

The shale preserving these megafossils also contains dispersed pollen with morphology and ornamentation diagnostic of Fagus.

Previously, the oldest Fagus occurrences confirmed by fruits were early Oligocene (ca. 32 Ma). The recognition of Middle Eocene (ca. 50 Ma) representatives helps to reduce the disparity between molecular evidence favoring Fagus as a primitive genus within Fagaceae, and fossil evidence, which had indicated older occurrences of Castanea and Quercus than Fagus.


Communicated by Parisa Panahi

Stomata in Quercus petraea and Quercus pubescens (Fagaceae)


Morphological and Molecular Differentiation between Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. and Quercus pubescens Willd. (Fagaceae) in Northern and Central Italy

by Bruschi P., Vendramin G., Bussotti F., Grossoni P. (2000)





1 Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Laboratorio di Botanica Applicata e Forestale, Piazzale delle Cascine, 28-I 50144 Firenze, Italy

2 Instituto Miglioramento Genetico Piante Forestali, C.N.R. Via Atto Vannucci 13,
50134 Firenze, Italy


in Annals of Botany 85: 325±333, 2000 – doi:10.1006/anbo.1999.1046


Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. and Q. pubescens Willd. are two closely related taxa. No specificc single marker, either morphological or molecular, has been identified to distinguish the two species until now.

In the present study morphoanatomical and molecular traits (simple sequence repeats SSR loci) were investigated in an attempt to characterize and to discriminate between these two oak species.

At the morphological level, the applied statistics (nested ANOVA and discriminant analysis) suggest that the micromorphological features are the most effective for this purpose.

The wide range of macromorphological variation observed can confound the classification of many individuals into either Q. petraea and Q. pubescens.

Analysis of microsatellite data indicates that most of the genetic variation is contained within, rather than between, species. The lack of molecular divergence could be attributed to either relatively rapid and recent differentiation or to extensive hybridization following secondary contact of the taxa.



Stomata are elliptical in shape with the major axis rather longer than the minor one, the rim is wider and uncovered by wax scales. Q. pubescens has a greater stomatal density but the stomata are smaller. They are slightly more rounded, the rim is smaller and entirely covered by wax scales.

Communicated by Parisa Panahi 

Stomata in Quercus rubra leaf under pollution conditions


Morpho-anatomical changes in Quercus rubra L. leaf under pollution conditions

by Săvulescu E., Delian E., Luchian V., Chira C.-L. (2009)

Elena Săvulescu, Elena Delian, Vasilica Luchian, Constantina-Lenuţa Chira

University of Agronomical Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Bucharest

in Lucrări ştiinţifice USAMVB, Seria B, vol. LIII: 688-693




Atmospheric pollution affects some plant species. Besides resistant species to this abiotic stress factor there is Quercus rubra with a specific cyto-histological leaf configuration.

Of this species, mature leaves were randomly collected from polluted and non-polluted habitats in Bucharest City and cross-sections have been carried out in leaf and petiole.

Following the microscopic observations and specific measurements it can be noticed that there is a higher stomata number on the leaf epidermis of samples from polluted area.

The leaf mesophyll was thinner in the case of polluted leaves. The leaf shows secondary formations in the principal nerve. In the petiole there are collateral-open type phloem-xylem vascular bundles.

In the median nerve of some polluted leaves there are two vascular bundles, as opposite to other samples with only one vascular bundle.

In the median nerve of some unpolluted leaves, we observed lenticels, an uncharacteristic formation for leaves. No significant differences between polluted and unpolluted leaves, regarding the leaf area, were registered.



Stomata in Ficus (Moraceae)

Photo credit: Plant Syst Evol


Leaf epidermal studies in some Nigerian species of Ficus L. (Moraceae)

by Ogunkunle A. T. J., Oladele F. A. (2008)

A. T. J. Ogunkunle
Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P M B 4000 Ogbomoso, Nigeria

F. A. Oladele
Department of Plant Biology, University of Ilorin, P M B 1515 Ilorin, Nigeria


in Plant Syst Evol (2008) 274:209–221 – DOI 10.1007/s00606-008-0044-9



Forty-two leaf epidermal features in 20 Nigerian species of Ficus, representing three of the four subgenera and four of the seven sections of the genus found in Africa have been examined.

Discontinuities in these characters clearly separated the three subgenera studied, namely, Ficus, Sycomorus and Urostigma, and supported the earlier sectional classification of the subgenus Urostigma (i.e. sections Sycidium, Galoglychia and Urostigma).

The subsectional boundaries among the members of the section Galoglychia studied, however, had little backing from their leaf epidermal characteristics due to extensive overlap of the features.

The results of the present studies support the genetic basis of the qualitative and quantitative variations in the leaf epidermal cells, stomata and trichomes in the Nigerian Ficus and the present and potential applications of these features in diagnostic and taxonomic investigations in the genus are discussed.

Communicated by Parisa Panahi


Analysis of stomata and leaf trichomes in Quercus robur genotypes.

Photo credit: Proceedings for Natural Sciences, Matica Srpska, Novi Sad


A comparative analysis of stomata and leaf trichome characteristics in Quercus robur L. genotypes.

by Nikolic N. P., Merkulov L. S., Krstic B. D., Orlovic S. S. (2003)


in Proceedings for Natural Sciences, Matica Srpska, Novi Sad, 105, 51–59


Hypostomaty, amphistomaty, epistomaty and stomatal density


A comparative study of the distribution and density of stomata in the British flora

by Peat H. J., Fitter A. H. (1994)

in Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 52: 377-393. – DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.1994.tb00999.x –


The distribution of stomata over both leaf surfaces may affect both the photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency of species, implying that species with different photosynthetic and water requirements may also have different stomatal distributions.

A database containing data on the distribution of stomata on the leaves of 469 British plant species was used to look for relationships between stomatal distribution (including both location on the leaf and density) and both habitat and morphological variables. Statistical models were applied to the data that minimized any effects that phylogenetic constraints may have had on the data.

Hypostomaty is common in woody species, species which typically occur in shaded habitats and species with large or glabrous leaves. Amphistomaty, however, predominates in species which occur in non-shaded habitats, species with small, dissected or hairy leaves, and in annual species. Amphistomaty, therefore, tends to occur in species where CO2 may be limiting photosynthesis (unshaded environments), or where there are structures to prevent water loss from the leaf (e.g. hairs).

Hypostomaty, however, occurs in slow-growing species (e.g. trees), species with leaves which have large boundary layers (large or entire leaves) and in species where CO2 is unlikely to limit photosynthesis (shaded habitats).