Recent progress in blue- and red-light-dependent stomatal opening

 

 

Light regulation of stomatal movement

by Shimazaki K., Doi M., Assmann S. M., Kinoshita T. (2007)

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Ropponmatsu, Fukuoka 810-8560, Japan.

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in Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 58: 219–247. – doi: 10.1146/annurev.arplant.57.032905.105434 –

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17209798

Abstract

Stomatal pores, each surrounded by a pair of guard cells, regulate CO2 uptake and water loss from leaves.

Stomatal opening is driven by the accumulation of K+ salts and sugars in guard cells, which is mediated by electrogenic proton pumps in the plasma membrane and/or metabolic activity.

Opening responses are achieved by coordination of light signaling, light-energy conversion, membrane ion transport, and metabolic activity in guard cells.

In this review, we focus on recent progress in blue- and red-light-dependent stomatal opening. Because the blue-light response of stomata appears to be strongly affected by red light, we discuss underlying mechanisms in the interaction between blue-light signaling and guard cell chloroplasts.

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PTPases are a critical signaling component in ABA-induced stomatal closure

 

 

Protein tyrosine phosphatases involved in signaling of the ABA-induced H2O2 generation in guard cells of Vicia faba L.

by Shi W. L., Jia W. S., Liu X., Zhang S. Q. (2004)

  • Wuliang Shi,
  • Wensuo Jia,
  • Xin Liu,
  • Shuqiu Zhang,

Wu-Liang SHI, Shu-Qiu ZHANG, State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China

Xin LIU, College of Life, Laiyang Agricultural College, Laiyang, China

Wen-Suo JIA,College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China

===

in Chinese Sci. Bull. 49: 1841-1846 – https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03183411 –

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF03183411

Abstract

Although protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) play an important role in signal transduction in animal cells, little is known about the function of PTPases in higher plants.

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are the critical components of ABA signaling pathway in guard cells. PTPase is an important regulator of MAPK, which is believed to mediate ABA-induced H2O2 generation in guard cells ofVicia faba L.

Here, we investigate the possible role of PTPases in stomatal movement process. Phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a specific inhibitor of PTPases, could prevent ABA or H2O2-induced stomatal closure ofVicia faba L; furthermore, it could promote opening of the stomata closed by ABA or H2O2.

The activity of PTPases can be effectively inhibited by PAO and H2O2. DTT had no effect on the PAO-induced inhibition of PTPases activity, but it could relieve the inhibition of H2O2 on PTPases activity. PAO could also inhibit the ABA-induced H2O2 generation in guard cells ofVicia faba L.

These results suggested that PTPases is a critical signaling component in ABA-induced stomatal closure, and serve as targets for H2O2lying on the signaling pathways downstream of ABA induced H2O2 generation.

A novel explanation for conflicting results about vanadate modulating stomatal movement and the involvement of PTPases

 

 

Protein tyrosine phosphatases mediate the signaling pathway of stomatal closure of Vicia faba L.

by Shi W. L., Liu X., Jia W. S., Zhang S. Q. (2005)

Wu-Liang SHI, Shu-Qiu ZHANG, State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China

Xin LIU, College of Life, Laiyang Agricultural College, Laiyang, China

Wen-Suo JIA,College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China

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in J. Integr. Plant Biol. 47: 319-326 – DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2005.00032.x –

http://www.jipb.net/Abstract.aspx?id=4839

Abstract

The regulation of stomatal movement is one of the most important signaling networks in plants.

The H+-ATPase at the plasma membrane of guard cells plays a critical role in the stomata opening, while there are some conflicting results regarding the effectiveness of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase inhibitor, vanadate, in inhibiting stomata opening.

We observed that 2 mmol/L vanadate hardly inhibited light-stimulated stomata opening in epidermal peels of Vicia faba L., but significantly inhibited dark- and ABA-induced stomatal closure.

These results cannot be explained with the previous findings that H+-ATPase was inhibited by vanadate. In view of the fact that vanadate is an inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases), we investigated whether the stomatal movement regulated by vanadate is through the regulation of PTPase.

As expected, phenylarsine oxide (PAO), a specific inhibitor of PTPase, has very similar effects and even more effective than vanadate. Typical PTPase activity was found in guard cells of V. faba; moreover, the phosphatase activity could be inhibited by both vanadate and PAO.

These results not only provide a novel explanation for conflicting results about vanadate modulating stomatal movement, but also provide further evidence for the involvement of PTPases in modulating signal transduction of stomatal movement.

The regulatory role of CO during stomatal movement

 

 

Carbon monoxide-induced stomatal closure involves generation of hydrogen peroxide in Vicia faba guard cells.

by She X.-P., Song, X.-G. (2008)

School of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710062, China

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in J. Integr. Plant Biol. 50: 1539–1548. – doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00716.x –

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19093972

Abstract

Here the regulatory role of CO during stomatal movement in Vicia faba L. was surveyed.

Results indicated that, like hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), CO donor Hematin induced stomatal closure in dose- and time-dependent manners. These responses were also proven by the addition of gaseous CO aqueous solution with different concentrations, showing the first time that CO and H(2)O(2) exhibit the similar regulation role in the stomatal movement.

Moreover, our data showed that ascorbic acid (ASA, an important reducing substrate for H(2)O(2) removal) and diphenylene iodonium (DPI, an inhibitor of the H(2)O(2)-generating enzyme NADPH oxidase) not only reversed stomatal closure by CO, but also suppressed the H(2)O(2) fluorescence induced by CO, implying that CO induced-stomatal closure probably involves H(2)O(2) signal.

Additionally, the CO/NO scavenger hemoglobin (Hb) and CO specific synthetic inhibitor ZnPPIX, ASA and DPI reversed the darkness-induced stomatal closure and H(2)O(2) fluorescence.

These results show that, perhaps like H(2)O(2), the levels of CO in guard cells of V. faba are higher in the dark than in light, HO-1 and NADPH oxidase are the enzyme systems responsible for generating endogenous CO and H(2)O(2) in darkness respectively, and that CO is involved in darkness-induced H(2)O(2) synthesis in V. faba guard cells.

BAK1 regulates ABA-induced stomatal closure in guard cells

 

 

BRI1-Associated Receptor Kinase 1 regulates guard cell ABA signaling mediated by Open Stomata 1 in Arabidopsis

by Shang Y., Dai C., Lee M. M., Kwak J. M., Nam K. H. (2015)

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul 140-742, Republic of Korea.
2
Department of Systems Biology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Republic of Korea.
3
Department of New Biology, Center for Plant Aging Research, Institute for Basic Science, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu 711-873, Republic of Korea.
4
Department of Biological Sciences, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul 140-742, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: khnam514@sookmyung.ac.kr.
Yun Shang

,

Changbo Dai

,

Myeong Min Lee

,

June M. Kwak

,

Kyoung Hee Nam,

 

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in Mol. Plant 9: 447–460. – DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2015.12.014 –

https://www.cell.com/molecular-plant/abstract/S1674-2052(15)00467-0

Abstract

Stomatal movements are critical in regulating gas exchange for photosynthesis and water balance between plant tissues and the atmosphere.

The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays key roles in regulating stomatal closure under various abiotic stresses. In this study, we revealed a novel role of BAK1 in guard cell ABA signaling. We found that the brassinosteroid (BR) signaling mutant bak1 lost more water than wild-type plants and showed ABA insensitivity in stomatal closure.

ABA-induced OST1 expression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were also impaired in bak1. Unlike direct treatment with H2O2, overexpression of OST1 did not completely rescue the insensitivity of bak1 to ABA.

We demonstrated that BAK1 forms a complex with OST1 near the plasma membrane and that the BAK1/OST1 complex is increased in response to ABA in planta. Brassinolide, the most active BR, exerted a negative effect on ABA-induced formation of the BAK1/OST1 complex and OST1 expression.

Moreover, we found that BAK1 and ABI1 oppositely regulate OST1 phosphorylation in vitro, and that ABI1 interacts with BAK1 and inhibits the interaction of BAK1 and OST1.

Taken together, our results suggest that BAK1 regulates ABA-induced stomatal closure in guard cells.

DES1 is a unique component of ABA signaling in stomata

 

 

Hydrogen sulfide generated by L-cysteine desulfhydrase acts upstream of nitric oxide to modulate abscisic acid-dependent stomatal closure.

by Scuffi D., Álvarez C., Laspina N., Gotor C., Lamattina L., Garcia-Mata C. (2014)

Denise_Scuffi2
Denise Scuffi, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Argentina
CONSOLACION_ALVAREZ_NUNEZ
Consolación Álvarez Núñez, Abengoa, Sevilla, Spain
Natalia_Laspina
Natalia Verónica Laspina, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina
Cecilia_Gotor
Cecilia Gotor, Spanish National Research Council, Madrid, Spain
Lorenzo_Lamattina
Lorenzo Lamattina, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Argentina
Charlie_Garcia-Mata
Charlie Garcia-Mata, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Argentina

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in Plant Physiol. 166: 2065–207 – doi: 10.1104/pp.114.245373 –

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25266633

Abstract

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a well-studied regulator of stomatal movement.

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a small signaling gas molecule involved in key physiological processes in mammals, has been recently reported as a new component of the ABA signaling network in stomatal guard cells.

In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), H2S is enzymatically produced in the cytosol through the activity of l-cysteine desulfhydrase (DES1). In this work, we used DES1 knockout Arabidopsis mutant plants (des1) to study the participation of DES1 in the cross talk between H2S and nitric oxide (NO) in the ABA-dependent signaling network in guard cells.

The results show that ABA did not close the stomata in isolated epidermal strips of des1 mutants, an effect that was restored by the application of exogenous H2S. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that ABA induces DES1 expression in guard cell-enriched RNA extracts from wild-type Arabidopsis plants.

Furthermore, stomata from isolated epidermal strips of Arabidopsis ABA receptor mutant pyrabactin-resistant1 (pyr1)/pyrabactin-like1 (pyl1)/pyl2/pyl4 close in response to exogenous H2S, suggesting that this gasotransmitter is acting downstream, although acting independently of the ABA receptor cannot be ruled out with this data. However, the Arabidopsis clade-A PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE2C mutant abscisic acid-insensitive1 (abi1-1) does not close the stomata when epidermal strips were treated with H2S, suggesting that H2S required a functional ABI1.

Further studies to unravel the cross talk between H2S and NO indicate that

(1) H2S promotes NO production,

(2) DES1 is required for ABA-dependent NO production, and

(3) NO is downstream of H2S in ABA-induced stomatal closure.

Altogether, data indicate that DES1 is a unique component of ABA signaling in guard cells.

ABA can act from within guard cells to regulate stomatal apertures

Screen Shot 2018-06-18 at 10.51.43
FIG. 5. Photomicrograph of Commelina communis guard cells 30 min after the indicated (arrow) guard cell was microinjected with ABA. Other cells visible were not injected. (Bar = 20 Mm.)

 

Inhibition of inward K+channels and stomatal response by abscisic acid: an intracellular locus of phytohormone action

by Schwartz A., Wu W. H., Tucker E. B., Assmann S. M. (1994)

AMNON SCHWARTZ , Department of Agricultural Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, 76-100, Israel;

WEI-HUA WU, The Biological Laboratories, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138

EDWARD B. TUCKER, Department of Natural Sciences, Baruch College, New York, NY, 10010

AND SARAH M. ASSMANN, The Biological Laboratories, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138

*

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in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91: 4019–4023 – https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.91.9.4019 – 

[PMC free article] [PubMed] – 

http://www.pnas.org/content/91/9/4019

http://www.esalq.usp.br/lepse/imgs/conteudo_thumb/Inhibition-of-inward-K–channels-and-stomatal-response-by-abscisic.pdf