Size of pollen grains and stomata are effective parameters for analysis of ploidy levels

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MALVACEAE – Eriotheca pubescens


Pollen and stomata morphometrics and polyploidy in Eriotheca (Malvaceae‐Bombacoideae)

by Marinho R. C., Mendes‐Rodrigues C., Bonetti A. M., Oliveira P. E., Peeters T. (xxxx)

in Plant Biology 16(2): 508 – 511 – DOI10.1111/plb.12135 –


Approximately 70% of the angiosperm species are polyploid, an important phenomenon in the evolution of those plants. But ploidy estimates have often been hindered because of the small size and large number of chromosomes in many tropical groups. Since polyploidy affects cell size, morphometric analyses of pollen grains and stomata have been used to infer ploidy level.

Polyploidy is present in many species of the Cerrado, the Neotropical savanna region in Central Brazil, and has been linked to apomixis in some taxa. Eriotheca gracilipes and Eriotheca pubescens are common tree species in this region, and present cytotypes that form reproductive mosaics. Hexaploid individuals (2n = 6x = 276) are polyembryonic and apomictic, while tetraploid and diploid individuals (2n = 2x = 92, 2n = 4x = 184) are sexual and monoembryonic. We tested whether morphometric analysis can be used to estimate ploidylevels in E. gracilipes and E. pubescens individuals.

Pollen material from diploid and hexaploid individuals of E. gracilipes, and tetraploid and hexaploid individuals of E. pubescens, were fixed in 50% FAA, and expanded leaves were dried in silica gel. Pollen grains and stomata of at least five individuals from each population were measured.

The results demonstrate that all measures were significantly different among cytotypes. Individuals with higher levels of ploidy (hexaploid) all presented measurements that were higher than those with lower levels (diploid and tetraploid). There was no overlap between ploidy levels in each species at 95% confidence interval. Thus, the size of the pollen grains and stomata are effective parameters for analysis of ploidy levels in E. gracilipes and E. pubescens.


Ontogenetic classifications of stomatal complexes

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Ontogenetic basis for classification of stomatal complexes – a reapproach

by Timonin A. C. (1995)

A. C. Timonin, Department of Higher Plants Morphology and Systematics, Biological Faculty, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorobyevy Gory, 119899, Moscow, Russia.

in Flora 190: 189-195 –

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The majority of existing ontogenetic classifications of stomatal complexes is considered to be, in fact, a mixture of structural and ontogenetic ones.

Purely ontogenetic classifications should be based on only three characters:

a) orientation of guard cells’ mother cell division in relation to the plane of the preceding cell division ;

b) orientation of the divisions of cells other than guard cells’ mother cell and

c) number of cell divisions leading to mature stomatal complex formation.

This method would result in three independent and reciprocally supplementary stomatal classifications. The first one consists of only PAYNE’S anomo-, dia-, and parameristic types. The second one contains both PAYNE’S allelo- and helicocytic types and new concentro-, radi-, and tangenticytic stomatal types. For the third classification, monomeristic and bimeristic types, and so forth, are proposed.

Two neglected unnamed STRASBURGER’S and PRANTL’S stomatal types are reintroduced as initial, resp. terminal.

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Morphological features of stomata of tomato cultivars




Analysis of SEM Images of Stomata of Different Tomato Cultivars Based on Morphological Features

Sanyal P., Bhattacharya U., Bandyopadhyay S. K. (2008)

Pritimoy Sanyal, West Bengal Un iv. of Techn., Kolkata, India

Ujjwal Bhattacharya,

Samir K. Bandyopadhyay,


in Modeling & Simulation,, 2008 Second Asia International Conference on Modelling & Simulation (AMS), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia – DOI: 10.1109/AMS.2008.81


Tomato is one of the important cash crops in the world. There are several varieties of tomato cultivars. Their identifications as well as taxonomy had been studied in the literature using different laboratory methods.
Both morphological and/or genetical characteristics were considered in these available studies. However, to the best of our knowledge, there does not exist any study employing an image analysis based approach. Also, morphological features of stomata of tomato cultivars had not been studied before for the present purpose.
In this article, we report results of our recent study of morphological features of stomata of different tomato cultivars based on their Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images.
Interestingly, these results of the present study are supported by the protein binding pattern of the seeds of respective cultivars.

Variations and modifications of the tricytic stoma



Ontogeny of the tricytic stoma – Variations and modifications.

by Farooqui P. (1981)

Department of Botany, The University, Allahabad, India

Forest Research Centre, Coimbatore, India

Parveen Farooqui

in Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Plant Sci.) 90: 85–89 –

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The tricytic stoma is studied on the basis of published literature and illustrations.

It is found that it may be formed in a variety of ways. These are classified and reviewed.



Variations and modifications of the anomocytic stoma



Ontogeny of the anomocytic stoma – Variations and modifications.

by Farooqui P. (1981)

Department of Botany, The University, Allahabad, India

Parveen Farooqui

in Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Plant Sci.) 90: 245–252 –

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Recent studies on the ontogeny of stomata in a number of plants have shown that the anomocytic stoma is not always perigenous or haplocheilic in origin as was previously believed but may be formed in a variety of ways.

These are classified and reviewed in the present paper. The need to investigate ontogeny of this type of stoma in more plant groups is emphasized.


Variations and modifications of the paracytic stoma



Ontogeny of the paracytic stoma – Variations and modifications.

by Farooqui P. (1982)

Department of Botany, The University, Allahabad, India

Regional Forest Research Centre, Jabalpur, India

Parveen Farooqui

in Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Plant Sci.) 91: 145–152 –

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It was generally believed that the topography of the cells surrounding the guard cells in the mature condition indicate their mode of development. However, it has now been established that more than one ontogenetic type may correspond to a single mature type, or it may lead to the development of varied stomatal types.

The paracytic stoma was studied from this viewpoint. It was found that it may be formed through one of at least eight different modes. These are classified and reviewed. The need to undertake studies on the ontogeny of this type of stoma in various groups of plants has been emphasized.

Stomatal patterns in embryophytes



Stomatal patterns in embryophytes: their evolution, ontogeny and interpretation.

by Payne W. W. (1979)

Willard W. Payne

in Taxon 28: 117–132 -DOI: 10.2307/1219566 –

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The history of study and nomenclature of stomatal concepts has not yet led to full elucidation of cell pattern significance for higher plants.
In this paper, a new ontogenetic system of classification is introduced that makes primary subdivision on the basis of the mode of division of the guard mother cell (GMC) with respect to the wall which cuts it from the meristemoid: diameristic, at right angles; parameristic, parallel to; and anomomeristic, without special orientation to the preceding wall.
These are further subdivided on the basis of ontogeny and number of the surrounding cells. The biology of stomata is discussed as it relates to cell patterning, and fundamental ties are pointed out between stomatal configurations and epidermal ontogeny, especially with regard to whether development is rectate, proceeding in a wave from an intercalary or marginal meristem, or diffuse, proceeding with continued meristematic activity within the expanding tissue over a long period of time.
The concept of perigenous stomata, those in which protodermal cells act directly as GMC’s without prior division, is refuted. The primitive stoma of land plant sporophytes is interpreted to be the simplest type of diameristic, mesoperigenous stoma, in which a protodermal meristemoid divides transversely, cutting off a distal GMC which then divides longitudinally to produce the guard cells. This stoma is suggested as the progenitor type for the Angiospermae, and is the primitive type for at least the Monocotyledonae.