Stomata of Sorghum (monocots)

Photo credit: Delta-Intkey

Abaxial epidermis of leaf blade (Sorghum leiocladum).

The grass genera of the world

by Watson L., Dallwitz M. J. (2014)

Sorghum Moench

Delta-Inktkey, Version: 12th August 2014. (

Abaxial leaf blade epidermis.

Costal/intercostal zonation conspicuous. Papillae present, or absent. Intercostal papillae over-arching the stomata; several per cell (the costal papillae consisting of fingerlike projections, the intercostal ones of larger, oblique swellings). Long-cells similar in shape costally and intercostally; of similar wall thickness costally and intercostally. Mid-intercostal long-cells rectangular; having markedly sinuous walls.

Microhairs present; panicoid-type; 34–78 microns long; 6.6–9.6 microns wide at the septum. Microhair total length/width at septum 6.3–11.8. Microhair apical cells (15–)21–30(–36) microns long. Microhair apical cell/total length ratio 0.39–0.62.

Stomata common; 27–36 microns long. Subsidiaries usually at least somewhat triangular. Guard-cells overlapping to flush with the interstomatals.

Intercostal short-cells absent or very rare (rare); when present, in cork/silica-cell pairs, or not paired (solitary); silicified. Intercostal silica bodies when present, tall-and-narrow, or crescentic. Costal short-cells conspicuously in long rows. Costal silica bodies ‘panicoid-type’; usually cross shaped to dumb-bell shaped, or nodular; not sharp-pointed.

Read the full article: Delta-Intkey

Stomata on anthers

Photo credit: Agron. Missouri

Higher magnification of a stoma on the connective.

Stomata on maize anthers

by Tsou C.-h., Cheng P.-c., Walden D. B. (2010)

Chih-hua Tsou, Ping-chin Cheng, David B. Walden

in Maize Genetics Cooperation Newsletter, vol 84, 2010

It is common that stomata are present on floral parts. When they are functioning, nectar/water secretion but not gas exchange is their major function (1). Kenda (1952) investigated the stomata on the anthers of many species and found they were distributed on the connective, but generally absent in the filament.

Distribution of stomata (*) on the adaxial surface of connective of an anther of Ohio 43 -
Distribution of stomata (*) on the adaxial surface of connective of an anther of Ohio 43 –

We examined anthers at anthesis of maize cultivars Gasp Flint and Ohio 43 by using cryo SEM and conventional SEM and found stomata on adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the connective (Fig 1), but not on filament nor the surfaces of the four microsporangia.

Read the full article: Agron.Missouri

Stomatal characters of C3 and C4 species

Photo credit: Sites.Biology.Duke

Solanum dimidiatum grown at at 215 �mol CO2 mol -1

Effects of a 4-year exposure to pre-industrial and elevated CO2gradient on stomatal characters of C3 and C4 species

by Chantal D. Reid, Hafiz Maherali, Robert B. Jackson, Hyrum B. Johnson, H. Wayne Polley


Many studies report that past increase in atmospheric [CO2] are associated with reduced stomatal density (SD). However, many of these studies are based on paleofossils or herbarium specimens where other environmental factors may affect stomatal distribution. To understand the effect of CO2 on stomatal distribution, we examined 9 grassland species after 4 years of growth in the field under an experimental gradient of CO2 ranging from pre-industrial to elevated concentrations (200 to 550 �mol CO2 mol-1).

Solanum dimidiatum grown at at 550 �mol CO2 mol -1 -
Solanum dimidiatum grown at at 550 �mol CO2 mol -1 –


In the field, casts were made on leaves of C3 and C4 annual and perennial grasses and forbs. Leaf impressions were made from the casts and SD, stomatal index (SI), and stomatal aperture length (AP) were measured.

Individually, the C4 grasses showed no strong negative linear relationship between SD and [CO2], SI and [CO2], or AP and [CO2].

In contrast, C3 annuals showed strong positive and negative linear relationships between SD and [CO2] or SI and [CO2]. One C3 perennial, Solanum dimidiatum, had a strong positive linear relationship between SD and [CO2] that was associated with a negative relationship between AP and [CO2].

In all species, AP either decreased or was unchanged by [CO2]. These stomatal parameters show no effect of CO2 on C4 grasses but different responses on C3 species, suggesting limited use of preserved material as [CO2] proxy. Also, C3 plants respond to CO2 by adjusting stomatal cell initiation, epidermal cell expansion, or both.

Stomata in Velloziaceae (monocots)

Photo credit: Scielo

Since the cells type 2 cannot be distinguished from the other epidermal cells, stomata from both of these species cannot be tetracytic (Brazilian Journal of Botany)

Ontogenesis of stomata in Velloziaceae: paracytic versus tetracytic?

by Milanello do Amaral M., de Mello-Silva R. (2008)

in Rev. bras. Bot. vol.31 no.3 São Paulo July/Sept. 2008


In Velloziaceae, the number of subsidiary cells has been used to characterize species and support groups. Nevertheless, the homology of the stomatal types have not been scrutinized. Stomatal ontogenesis of Vellozia epidendroides and V. plicata, assigned to have tetracytic stomata, and of V. glauca and Barbacenia riparia, assigned to have paracytic stomata, were investigated.

Velloziaceae -
Velloziaceae –

In the four species studied, stomata followed perigenic development. Subsidiary cells arise from oblique divisions of neighbouring cells of the guard mother cell (GMC). These cells are elongated and parallel to the longer axis of the stoma. Polar cells show wide variation, following the shape and size of the epidermal cells in the vicinity. Hence, these cells cannot be called subsidiary cells. This wide variation is due to a much higher density of stomata in some regions of the leaf blade. This distribution of stomata forces the development of short polar cells, leading to an apparently tetracytic stomata. In regions of low concentration of stomata, higher spatial availability between the GMCs allows the elongation of polar cells, leading to evident paracytic stomata.


Therefore, the four studied species are considered braquiparacytic, questioning the classification of stomata into tetracytic and paracytic in Velloziaceae.

Read the full article: Scielo

Stomata in maize (Zea mays, Poaceae)


Development: Early events in asymmetric division

by Laura Serna

  • Nature Plants 1, Article number: 15008 (2015) – ​doi:10.1038/nplants.2015.8

Asymmetric cell divisions establish the patterning of stomata in maize. PAN receptor-like kinases were thought to start a signalling cascade leading to pre-mitotic polarization of the cell. Re-analysis of mutants now reveals that the SCAR/WAVE complex is involved in the early initiation of polarity in mother cells.ta in maize

Stomata of Dyckia brevifolia (monocots)

Photo credit: Hindawi

Stomata in the leaf blade of Dyckia brevifolia Baker – Frontal view of the subsidiary cells (Suc) of the stomata, as observed in light microscopy. 

Leaf Epidermis of the Rheophyte Dyckia brevifolia Baker (Bromeliaceae)

by Lobo G. M., de Souza T. V., Voltolini C. H., Reis A., Santos M. (2013)

Ghislaine Maria Lobo, Thaysi Ventura de Souza, Caroline Heinig Voltolini, Ademir Reis, and Marisa Santos

in The Scientific World Journal
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 307593, 7 pages


Some species of Dyckia Schult. f., including Dyckia brevifolia Baker, are rheophytes that live in the fast-moving water currents of streams and rivers which are subject to frequent flooding, but also period of low water. This study aimed to analyze the leaf epidermis of D. brevifolia in the context of epidermal adaptation to this aquatic plant’s rheophytic habitat.

The epidermis is uniseriate, and the cuticle is thickened. The inner periclinal and anticlinal walls of the epidermal cells are thickened and lignified. Stomata are tetracytic, located in the depressions in relation to the surrounding epidermal cells, and covered by peltate trichomes.

While the epidermal characteristics of D. brevifolia are similar to those of Bromeliaceae species, this species has made particular adaptations of leaf epidermis in response to its rheophytic environment.

Read the full article: The Scientific World Journal

Stomata of monocots


Abnormal and cytoplasmic connection of guard cells of stomata of leaves of six species of the monocots

by Hashemloian B. D., Azimi A. A. (2014)

Babak Delnavaz Hashemloian, Azra Ataei Azimi


in Journal of Plant Sciences 2(6): 334-338


The present investigation describes abnormal stomata and cytoplasmic connections between guard cells of neighboring stomata in mature leafs of six species of the monocots.

The study is made on leaves of Amaryllis reticulata L. Her., Narcissus pseudonarcissus L., Iris langport Wern., Crocus sativus L., Ixiolirion tataricum (Pall.) and Allium cepa L. anomocytic stomata type was observed in all species.

Several stomata abnormally include single guard cells, aborted guard cells arrested developments and cytoplasmic connection between guard cells of neighboring stomata was common to all species except in Allium cepa wasn’t observed cytoplasmic connection.

Read the full article: Science