Stomata in Clinacanthus (Acanthaceae)

Gambar 1.
 Morfologi Tanaman (I), Anatomi Stomata dan Trikoma Daun Tanaman Dandang Gendis(II); Stomata (S), Epidermis (E), Trikoma Grandular (TG), Lithocyst
(L) Penampang Membujur denganPerbesaran 400x

Analisis Anatomi dan Trikoma Tanaman Obat Dandang Gendis Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau

by Tambaru E., Paembonan S. A., Ura R., Tuwo M. (2019)

Elis Tambaru 1, Samuel A. Paembonan 2, Resti Ura ’2, Mustika Tuwo 1 

1 Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Universitas Hasanuddin

2 Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Hasanuddin


In Jurnal Ilmu Alam dan Lingkungan 10(1): 35 – 42 –


Research on the analysis of the anatomy of the stomatal and trichomes of themedicinal plant Dandang Gendis Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f.) Lindau in Makassar City.

This study aims to determine the anatomical structure of the stomatal and trichomes of longitudinal cross-section of leaves that are used as herbal medicines. This research method was used to spread acetone to obtain stomatal prints on the leaf surface, the data were analyzed descriptively.

The results of the analysis of the anatomy of the stomatal and trichomes of leaves of the medicinal plant Dandang Gendis Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f.) Lindau was a diacytic type of stomatal, the spread of stomatal was 

only found on the surface of the abaxial leaf including the apple type. The number of abaxial stomatal was160 stomatal/mm2. The number of epidermal cells was 748 epidermis/mm2 and abaxial 504 epidermis/mm2 , stomatal index 23.95%, and stomatal size 159.26 µm. On the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaves of Dandang Gendis Clinacanthus nutans (Burm.f.) Lindau, glandular and lithocyst trichomes were encountered.

Harmful effects of radicals generated in polluted dew

Harmful effects of radicals generated in polluted dew on the needles of Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora)

by Kume A. (2001)

Atsushi Kume


In New Phytologist, 2001 –


The effects of free radicals, ·OH and ·NO, generated in polluted dew water on needles of Pinus densiflora (Japanese Red pine) were investigated. • ·OH-generating solutions (HOOH with Fe(III) and oxalate ion; ·OH treatment) and ·OH- and ·NO-generating solutions (NO2−; ·OH/·NO treatment) were regulated at 25, 50 and 100 µmol and pH 4.4. HOOH only (HOOH treatment) was used as a control solution.

Solutions were applied as a mist to the needle surface of P. densiflora seedlings before dawn twice a week for 3 months. • Within a month, net photosynthesis at near saturating irradiance (Pn) and stomatal conductance (gl) of ·OH-treated needles decreased with increasing solution concentration. The HOOH treatment had no effects on any of the measured parameters. Therefore, ·OH in the artificial dews caused the decreases in Pn and gl. In ·OH/·NO-treated needles, gl increased during the experiment, but Pn was unchanged.

In all experiments, the characteristics of PSII were not significantly altered. • Free radicals in polluted dew water have harmful effects on the photosynthesis of P. densiflora and compound effects of ·OH and ·NO are different.

Increasing sucrose supply also increased sugars and starch content and number of stomata and decreased water potential and size of stomata during in vitro growth period

Fig. 2
 Effect of sucrose concentration (0%, 3%, 6% and9%) on the growth of 
 Alocasia amazonica plantlets at 0 daysof acclimatization (a, b) andafter 30 days of acclimatization (c,d). Bar=2 cm

In vitro sucrose concentration affects growth and acclimatization of  Alocasia amazonica plantlets

by Jo E.-A., Tewari R. K., Hahn E.-J., Paek K.-Y. (2009)

Eun-A Jo, Rajesh Kumar Tewari, Eun-Joo Hahn, Kee-Yoeup Paek,

E.-A. Jo – R. K. Tewari – E.-J. Hahn – K.-Y. Paek : Research Center for the Development of Advanced Horticultural Technology, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, Republic of Korea

R. K. Tewari : Laboratory of Plant Nutrition, Graduate School of Horticulture,Chiba University, Matsudo 648, Chiba 271-8510, Japan


In Plant Cell Tiss Organ Cult (2009) 96: 307–315 – DOI 10.1007/s11240-008-9488-4 –


Plantlets of  Alocasia amazonica were regenerated on the MS medium supplemented with different concentrations (0–9%) of sucrose. An absence of sucrose in the growth medium induced generation of leaves, however, it decreased multiplication. On contrary, sucrose supply of 6% or 9% enhanced multiplication but hampered photoau-totrophic growth (generation of leaves). Increasing sucrose supply also increased sugars and starch content and number of stomata and decreased water potential and size of stomata during in vitro growth period. During ex vitro acclimatization, shoot length, root length, leaf number and root number of  Alocasia plantlets grown with 3% sucrose, were found to be better among the other studied sucrose concentrations.

Under ex vitro acclimatization, number of stomata, contents of various carbohydrates in the leaves were increased but size of stomata decreased with increasing sucrose supply during in vitro growth period. Moreover, water potential of leaves of plantlets, which have been grown with a sucrose concentration other than 3%, was decreased. During in vitro growth, net CO2 assimilation rate (PN), transpiration (E), stomatal conductance (gs) and variable fluorescence to maximum fluorescence ratio (Fv/ Fm) were unaffected, however, during acclimatization these were changed and maximum PN, E, and gs were observed in the plantlets micropropagated with 3% sucrose. Fv/Fm was decreased severely in the plantlets micropropagated with 6% sucrose during acclimatization. Thus a sucrose concentration of 3% in the medium is appeared to be better among studied concentrations for both in vitro growth and ex vitro acclimatization of  A. amazonica plantlets.

Stomata in Leucophyllum (Scrophulariaceae)

Fig. 12. Dorsal surface of leaf (Karachi. Sample) showing anisocytic stomata and trichomes.Stomata are quite infrequent on dorsal surface. Characteristically, Anticlinal walls are generally straight. (Magnification: 45 x 10 X).


by Khan D. (2018)

In Int. J. Biol. Res.6(2): 109-135 –

Fig. 13. Stomata on dorsal surface of leaf (Karachi sample). A, Anisocytic; B, Staurocytic(possibly developing to anomocytic type); C, A paracytic stoma. Magnification: 45 x 10 X,zoom: 2X)


Leucophyllum frutescens (Berlandier) I.M. Johnston collected from Oud Metha Park; Dubai(UAE) has been studied for its phytography and leaf macrometry and surface micromorphology. L. frutescens is a perennial, monoecious, microphyllous plant with silver gray green leaves and employed for making hedges. Flowers are purple bell-shaped. Calyx connate at base and corolla gamopetalous. Stamens 4 – two smaller (more or less straight), two larger (curved). Epipetalous hairs present and those around the bases of two relatively straight stamens are very long multicellular with rounded rough head. There are brown spots on white in the corolla throat. Ovary syncarpous, stigma capitate and fruit capsule.

Leaf length (LL) and breadth (LB) averaged to 2.32 ± 0.1017 and 1.14 ± 0.058 cm, respectively. LL varied from 0.7 to 3.54 cm (CV= 29.29%) and LB from 0.20 to 2.20 cm (CV=31.94%). Measured area of leaf (LAM) averaged to 1.801 ± 0.1366 cm2. LAM related with the multiplicative factor, LL x LB, as LAM = 0.735 (LL x LB)0.862 ± 0.223. The K factor determined as LAM / LL x LB averaged to 0.6716 ± 0.0241. The factor K and the power model equation were equally good in estimating leaf area on the basis of linear dimensions LL and LB.

The epidermal cells are small. In nail-polish imprints of dorsal surface of trichome-removed leaves a large number of epidermal cells (around 500 cells per mm2) were found to be present and great majority of them either abutted stomata or produced trichomes. The epidermal cells were polygonal in shape with straight thickened anticlinal walls. The pavement around the base of a trichome was seen to be formed of 1, 2, 3, 4 or more cells. The tender stem, leaves and calyx are covered with thick crop of multicellular branched dendritic trichomes. Simple conical trichomes were also present underneath the crop of dendritic trichomes. As per classification scheme of Prabhakar(2004), three types of stomata were frequently found on the leaves of L. frutescens  –  Anisocytic, tetracytic and anomocytic (rarely staurocytic also). Stomatal density on ventral surface averaged to 230.38 ± 5.23 stomata per mm2. Dorsally, stomata are infrequent (5.11 ± 1.1317 stomata per mm2) and mostly anisocytic. According to Element detection System (EDS) of SEM, the leaf tissue matrix was mainly composed of Oxygen and Carbon. Cl, Na and Mg were also present

The physiological mechanisms by which the clock might regulate stomatal movements and the benefits that circadian regulation of stomatal behaviour could confer to the plant

Circadian rhythms in stomata: physiological and molecular aspects

by Hubbard K. E., Webb A. A. R. (2015)

  • Katharine E. Hubbard,
  • Alex A. R. Webb,

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK


In S. Mancuso, S. Shabala, eds, Rhythms in Plants. Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland, 231–255 –


Stomata are the major route of gas exchange between the atmosphere and the leaf interior. The size of the stomatal pore is controlled by the movements of the stomatal guard cells. The guard cells close the stomatal pore to conserve water during stress. In more favourable conditions, the stomatal movements optimise CO2 uptake whilst minimising water loss. The movements of stomata are controlled by an extensive network of signalling pathways responding to diverse stimuli. One of the regulators of stomata is the circadian clock. We discuss the physiological mechanisms by which the clock might regulate stomatal movements and the benefits that circadian regulation of stomatal behaviour could confer to the plant.

Influence of drought upon certain physiologic processes and upon such reactions as stomatal function

Drought resistance in plants and physiological processes.

by Iljin W. S. (1957)

Faculdad de Agronomia, Universidad Central de Venezuela, maracay, Venezuela

In Annual Review of Plant Physiology 8: 257-274 –

Quantitative trait loci for adaxial and abaxial stomatal frequencies

Identification of quantitative trait loci for adaxial and abaxial stomatal frequencies in Oryza sativa

by Ishimaru K., Shirota K., Higa M., Kawamitsu Y. (2001)

Ken Ishimaru a

Kanako Shirota b

Masae Higa b

Yoshinobu Kawamitsu b

aDepartment of Plant Physiology, National Institute of Agrobiological Resources, Kannondai, 2-1-2, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602, Japan

bCrop Science Laboratory, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan


In Plant Physiol. Biochem. 39: 173-177 –


Stomatal frequency is one of the main factors that determine photosynthetic ability and stomatal conductance. However, the genetic basis for stomatal frequency is still poorly understood. The genetic relations between adaxial and abaxial stomatal frequencies have been studied in rice (Oryza sativa L.) with quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis approach on a population of backcross inbred lines of japonica Nipponbare × indica Kasalath. Four QTLs controlling adaxial and abaxial stomatal frequencies were identified. On chromosome 3 of rice, QTL for adaxial stomatal frequency overlapped that for abaxial stomatal frequency. There was a high correlation (r = 0.660, P < 0.01) between them, and the allele that increases the expression was contributed by Kasalath for both traits. These results suggest that the same gene may pleiotropically control the stomatal frequency on both surfaces of the leaf. QTLs for leaf rolling related to osmotic stress were also mapped. The absence of overlap in QTLs for leaf rolling and stomatal frequency suggests that osmotic tolerance is at least partly independent of stomatal frequency. The genetic relationship between stomatal frequency and yield is also discussed.