Leaf hydraulic system: rapid epidermal and stomatal responses to changes in water supply
by Raschke K. (1970)
In Science 167: 189–191 – DOI: 10.1126/science.167.3915.189 –
The epidermis of the leaf of Zea mays transmits changes it water potential in the water supply of the leaf to the stomata within 0.1 second.
Reduction in water supply can cause the subsidiary cells surrounding the stomata to collapse within 1.5 minutes, and the epidermis to shrink to one-third of its original thickness within 20 minutes.