New compression leaf material of Ceratozamia (Zamiaceae) has been recognised in the EuropeanCenozoic. A leaflet of Ceratozamia floersheimensis (Engelhardt) Kvaček was recovered among unidentified mate-rial from the Oligocene of Trbovlje, former Trifail, Slovenia, housed in old collections of the Austrian GeologicalSurvey, Vienna. It is similar in morphology and epidermal anatomy to other specimens previously studied fromthe lower Oligocene of Flörsheim, Germany and Budapest, Hungary. A fragmentary leaflet assigned to C. hof-mannii Ettingsh. was recovered in the uppermost part of the Most Formation (Most Basin in North Bohemia,Czech Republic) and dated by magnetostratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy to CHRON C5Cn.3n, that is, the latestearly Miocene. It yielded excellently preserved epidermal structures, permitting confirmation of the generic affin-ity and a more precise comparison with this lower Miocene species previously known from Austria (Münzenberg,Leoben Basin) and re-investigated earlier. Both the Oligocene and Miocene populations of Ceratozamia are basedon isolated disarticulated leaflets matching some living representatives in the size and slender form of the leaf-lets. Such ceratozamias thrive today in extratropical areas near the present limits of distribution of the genusalong the Sierra Madre Orientale in north-eastern Mexico, in particular C. microstrobila Vovides & J.D. Reesand others of the C. latifolia complex, as well as C. hildae G.P. Landry & M.C. Wilson (“bamboo cycad”). Theoccurrence of Ceratozamia suggests subtropical to warm-temperate, almost frostless climate and a high amountof precipitation. The accompanied fossil vegetation of both species corresponds well with the temperature regime.While the Oligocene species in Hungary probably thrived under sub-humid conditions, the remaining occur-rences of fossil Ceratozamia were connected with humid evergreen to mixed-mesophytic forests.