(Serial Book, Monograph). London, UK: Chapman & Hall, 1–375. –
The story about stomata starts almost 400 million years ago in the late Silurian-early Devonian Period when plants left their aquatic environment and invaded land. In order to survive, the plants had to develop features which would prevent excessive water loss whilst allowing Co2 to enter the plant for photosynthesis.
Thus, it is considered that a cuticle, stomata and vascular tissue developed almost simultaneously, and these three features were the key to the emergence and development of large terrestrial plants (e.g. Chaloner, 1970).