Mechanisms of stomatal development.


Mechanisms of stomatal development.

Pillitteri L. J, Torii K. U. (2012)

Lynn Jo Pillitteri,  Department of Biology, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington 98225, USA
Keiko U. Torii, Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA

in Annual Review of Plant Biology 63: 591–614. –

CrossRefMedlineWeb of ScienceGoogle Scholar –


The main route for CO2 and water vapor exchange between a plant and the environment is through small pores called stomata. The accessibility of stomata and predictable division series that characterize their development provides an excellent system to address fundamental questions in biology.

Stomatal cell-state transition and specification are regulated by a suite of transcription factors controlled by positional signaling via peptide ligands and transmembrane receptors.

Downstream effectors include several members of the core cell-cycle genes.

Environmentally induced signals are integrated into this essential developmental program to modulate stomatal development or function in response to changes in the abiotic environment.

In addition, the recent identification of premitotic polarly localized proteins from both Arabidopsis and maize has laid a foundation for the future understanding of intrinsic cell polarity in plants.

This review highlights the mechanisms of stomatal development through characterization of genes controlling cell-fate specification, cell polarity, cell division, and cell-cell communication during stomatal development and discusses the genetic framework linking these molecular processes with the correct spacing, density, and differentiation of stomata.


Published by

Willem Van Cotthem

Honorary Professor of Botany, University of Ghent (Belgium). Scientific Consultant for Desertification and Sustainable Development.

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